Advertisement

The Historical Basis for the Understanding of a State in Modern Russia: A Case Study Based on Analysis of Components in the Concept of a State, Established Between the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

  • Natalia P. Koptseva
  • Alexandra A. Sitnikova
Article
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Using semiotic and historical methods, the article recovers the ancient Russian concept of ‘state’, which appeared and gained a foothold in the Russian social and cultural space in the fourteen and fifteenth centuries. In the authors’ opinions, this content has determined the basic features for understanding the State in modern post-Soviet Russian society to date. Accordingly, it is important to reassemble the main conceptual threads in the ‘state’ concept during the epoch of Ivan the Terrible, the Muscovite Tsar, the epoch when the ‘state’ concept gained a foothold in Russian political culture. To re-establish the content of the ‘state’ concept, a historical description, an etymological and comparative analysis of this concept, as well as content analysis of the first epistle from Tsar Ivan the Terrible to Duke Andrei Kurbsky were employed. As a result, it was possible to recover the aspects of the ‘state’ concept that continue to be reproduced in post-Soviet Russian culture and predetermine certain elements of modern Russia’s political outlook. This concerns the central role of the ‘sovereign ruler’ in the State, the ideal of the ideological unity, the State’s mission of mediation between man and God, the hierarchy of the State and the sacral role of the ruler at the peak of this hierarchy.

Keywords

Semiotic analysis The concept of “state” Ancient Russian history Ivan the Terrible Content analysis Etymological analysis 

References

  1. 1.
    Zasorina, Lidia, ed. 1977. The Frequency Dictionary of the Russian Language. About 40,000 Words. Moscow: Russkiy Yazyk [Russian Language].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sklyarevskay, Galina (ed.). 2008. Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language of the Beginning of the 21st Century. Topical Lexis. Moscow: Eksmo.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dal, Vladimir. 2013. Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow: Directmedia.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cullum-Swan, Betsy, and Manning, Peter. 1998. Narrative, content, and semiotic analysis. In The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues, eds. Denzin, Norman and Yvonna Lincoln, 463–477.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Radford, Luis. 2000. Signs and meanings in students’ emergent algebraic thinking: A semiotic analysis. Educational Studies in Mathematics 42(3): 237–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hodge, Bob. 2014. Social semiotics. In The Routledge Companion to Global Popular Culture, 58–66. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Madariaga, Isabel. 2005. Ivan the Terrible. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Payne, Robert, and Nikita Romanoff. 2002. Ivan the Terrible. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Floria, Boris. 2014. Ivan the Terrible. Russian Studies in History 53(1): 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dwyer, Michael G., Juan J. Campo, and Kerry J. Kessler. 2005. Ivan the terrible: Hurricane’s impact raises design criteria questions. Offshore 65.2: 50. https://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-65/issue-2/construction-installation/ivan-the-terrible-hurricaines-impact.html Accessed 12 March 2018.
  11. 11.
    Fine, Anne. 2011. Ivan the Terrible. London: Egmont.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Perrie, Maureen. 2001. The Cult of Ivan the Terrible in Stalin’s Russia. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Perrie, Maureen. 2002. The image of Ivan the Terrible in Russian folklore, vol. 16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Perrie, Maureen, and Andrei Pavlov. 2014. Ivan the Terrible. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grey, Ian. 2016. Ivan the Terrible. New Word City.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cherniavsky, Michael. 1968. Ivan the Terrible as Renaissance prince. Slavic Review 27(2): 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karamzin, Nikolay. 2017. Istoriya gosudarstva Rossiyskogo [History of the Russian state]. Moscow: Litres.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soloviev, Sergey. 2010. History of Russia since ancient times. Moscow: Eksmo.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klyuchevsky, Vasily. 2004. Russian history. Full course of lectures. Moscow: OLMA Media Group.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Platt, Kevin M.F., and David Brandenberger. 1999. Terribly Romantic, Terribly Progressive, or Terribly Tragic: Rehabilitating Ivan IV under IV Stalin. The Russian Review 58(4): 635–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thompson, Kristin. 1977. “Ivan the Terrible” and Stalinist Russia: A Reexamination. Cinema Journal 17(1): 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fitzpatrick, Sheila (ed.). 2000. Stalinism: New directions. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Martin, Janet. 2007. “Ivan IV the Terrible”. Medieval Russia 980–1584. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yanov, Alexander. 1981. The Origins of Autocracy. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hosking, Geoffrey. 2004. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hunt, Priscilla. 1993. Ivan IV’s Personal Mythology of Kingship. Slavic Review 52(4): 769–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Snoj, Marko. 2005. Etymology. In Encyclopedia of Linguistics, ed. Strazny Philipp, 304–306. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liberman, Anatoly. 2005. Word Origins…and How We Know Them: Etymology for Everyone. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Skeat, Walter W. 2000. The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology. London: Claus Ltd.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Keenan, Edward L. 1971. The Kurbskii-Groznyi Apocrypha: The Seventeenth-Century Genesis of the «Correspondence» Attributed to Prince A. M. Kurbskii and Tsar Ivan IV. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bertolet, Anna Riehl. 2011. The Tsar and the Queen: “You speak a language that I understand not”. In The Foreign Relations of Elizabeth I, 101–123. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wigzell, Faith. 1981. Literature, from the beginning to 1700. The Year’s Work in Modern Language Studies 43: 1091–1098.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shvabrin, Stanislav A. 2017. The Imagined Interlocutor in Kurbskii’s History of the Grand Prince of Moscow. In Speculum Slaviae Orientalis: Muscovy, Southwest Russia and Lithuania in the late Middle Ages, 166–184.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Surowiec, Krzysztof, and Aleksander Razin. 2016. Założenia geopolityki Iwana IV Groźnego i jej realizacja w Rosji w latach 1547–1584. Humanities and Social Sciences 21.23(1): 153–165.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koptseva, Natalia P., Vladimir S. Luzan, and Veronica A. Razumovskaya. 2017. The Content Analysis of the Russian Federal and Regional Basic Legislation on the Cultural Policy. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law-Revue internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 30(1): 23–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hegel, Georg W.F. 1990. Elements of the Philosophy of Right. Moscow: Mysl’ [Thought].Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chetvernin, Vladimir. 2005. Libertarian juristic concept of law. In Memory of V.S. Nesesyant. 9th seminar “Economics: Theory, History, Economy, and Law”: verbatim report. http://www.sapov.ru/seminar/stenogramma_09.htm. Accessed 12 March 2018.
  38. 38.
    Ilin, Mikhail V. 1994. Political Discourse: Words and Meanings (State). Political Research 1: 127–140.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tsyganenko, Galina P. 1989. Etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Kiev: Radyansko Shkola.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chernykh, Pavel Ya. 1999. Historic and Etymological Dictionary of the Modern Russian Language. Moscow: Russky Yasyk [Russian language].Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Semenov, Anton V. 2003. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Russian language from A to Ya. Moscow: Publishing House “Yunves”. http://evartist.narod.ru/text15/001.htm. Accessed 12 March 2018.
  42. 42.
    Elyanov, Eugeniy M. 2004. Ivan the Terrible: Creator or Destroyer? Research into the problems of subjective interpretations in history. Moscow: Editorial URSS.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Writings of the Saint Reverend Joseph Volotsky. 1994. Enlightener. The Hole Transfiguration Valaam Monastery. http://www.wco.ru/biblio/books/iosifv1/Main.htm. Accessed 12 March 2018.
  44. 44.
    Likhachev, Dmytry. 1984. The address on conviction of heresies by Joseph Volotsky. In Literature monuments of ancient Rus’. The end of the 15th—second half of the 16th century. Introduction, eds. Dmitriev, Lev and Dmytry Likhachev, 324–349. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya Literatura [Fictional Literature].Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Likhachev, Dmytry. 1984. The message from the holy man Philotheos. In Literature monuments of ancient Rus’. The end of the 15th—second half of the 16th century. Introduction, eds. Dmitriev, Lev and Dmytry Likhachev, 436–441. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya Literatura [Fictional Literature].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lyzlov, Andrey. 1990. Scythian history. Moscow: Nauka [Science].Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kostomarov, Nykolay. 2004. Russian history in the biographies of its main figures. Moscow: Eksmo.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gumilyov, Lev. 1992. From Rus to Russia: Essays of ethnic history. Saint Petersburg: Yuna.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bokhanov, Alexander. 2002. Autocracy. The idea of royal power. Moscow: “TID “Russkoye slovo - RS” [Publishing House “Russian Word”].Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nikolsky, Nykolay. 1988. History of the Russian church. Moscow: Politizdat.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kartashev, Alexander. 2004. History of the Russian church. Moscow: Eksmo.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zamaleev, Alexander. 1987. Philosophical thought in medieval Rus’ (11th16th century). Leningrad: Nauka [Science].Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bachinin, Vladislav. 2005. National idea for Russia: choice among Byzantism, evangelism, and secularism. Historical essays of the political theology and cultural anthropolog. Moscow: Aleteya.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Romanova, Anna 2002. Eschatological expectations in the 15th century and records in the Ecclesiastical calendar. In The Russian state in the 14th—17th centuries: a collection of articles devoted to the 75th anniversary of the date of birth of Yu.G. Alekseev, 217–242. Saint Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Trepavlov, Vadim. 2005. “Great landlord”. The Russian tsar in the mind of the Russian peoples in the 15th–18th centuries. In Russian history, 124–138. Moscow: Nauka [Science].Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kvlividze, Nina. 2003. Symbolic images of Muscovite State and the iconographic program of the paintings in the Cathedral of the Novodevichi Convent. In Art in the Ancient Rus. Russian art of the Late Middle Ages: 16th century. Saint Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Krapchunov, Daniil. 2004. Russian heresy as a phenomenon of cultural cataclysm at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. Veliky Novgorod.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Storchak, Vladimir. 2007. Messianism as a Russian social, cultural, and ideological phenomenon: The second half of the 15th century—the first third of the 20th century. Moscow.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kazharov, Albert. 2006. The role of socio-political ideas of Byzantium teachings in the development of concepts of the Sate in Muscovite Rus’. Moscow.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gadamer, Georg. 1988. Truth and method: Basis of philosophical hermeneutics. Moscow: Progress.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ivan IV (the Terrible). 2007. The first epistle to Duke Kurbsky (1564). 2007 Saint Petersburg: Azbuka.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bishop Prokhor. Life of Metropolitan Peter, 1326. http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/jrh11/petrmetpar.doc. Accessed 12 March 2018.
  63. 63.
    Philotheus. 1901. Message to the stargazers. Kiev: Philotheus.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Grekulov, Efim. 1964. Orthodox inquisition in Russia. Moscow: Nauka [Science].Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ivan IV, Tsar, Kurbsky, Andrei Mikhaylovich. 1981. Correspondence between Ivan the Terrible and Andrei Kurbsky. Moscow: Nauka [Science].Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tikhonov, Alexander. 2004. Material from the dictionary: Phraseological dictionary of the modern Russian literary language. Moscow: Flinta: Nauka [Science].Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ushakov, Dmytry. 2000. Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow: Nauka [Science].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Siberian Federal UniversityKrasnoyarskRussia

Personalised recommendations