Progress on the development of nanotechnology has led to a number of initiatives which serve to normalize activities in this area. Among emerging technologies, nanotechnology is one of the most prominent, and it raises high expectations in a wide range of areas affecting daily life. The risks to human health, the pathways of exposure to nanomaterials, and occupational safety are recent issues which require more attention. The study was performed on nanopatents by collecting, processing and analyzing information extracted from specialized patent databases covering the period from 1991 to 2011, totalling 1,343 patents and representing 36 countries. These patents were classified by the International Patent Classification, using the methodology proposed in a study published by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which resulted in six groups of patents, distributed as follows: nanomaterials (40.3 %), medicine and biotechnology (26.6 %), measurement and production (10 %), electronics (2.7 %), energy and the environment (2.2 %), and optical electronics (1 %). Around 17 % of the patents in question did not fall into the adopted classification. The aim of this paper is to analyze the main trends of patenting related to nanotechnology, its development and environmental implications. An additional goal is to assist policy-makers to adjust the regulatory framework on nanotechnology, and to make recommendations for governments, industry, and national organizations, on creating specific subsidies for regulatory framework in Brazil.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors express their gratitude to the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property for support.
Allarakhia, M., & Walsh, S. (2012). Analyzing and organizing nanotechnology development: Application of the institutional analysis development framework to nanotechnology consortia. Technovation,32(3–4), 216–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antunes, A. M. S., Alencar, M. S. M., Silva, C. H., Nunes, J., & Mendes, F. M. L. (2012). Trends in nanotechnology patents applied to the health sector. Recent patents in nanotechnology,6, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackman, M. (2004). World patent information—the first 25 years. World Patent Information,26(1), 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blind, K., & Gauch, S. (2009). Research and standardisation in nanotechnology: Evidence from Germany. The Journal of Technology Transfer,34(3), 320–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borm, P. J. A., Robbins, D., Haubold, S., Kuhlbusch, T., Fissan, H., Donaldson, K., et al. (2006). The potential risks of nanomaterials: A review carried out for ECETOC. Particle and Fibre Toxicology,. doi:10.1186/1743-8977-3-11.Google Scholar
Braun, T., Schubert, A., & Zsindely, S. (1997). Nanoscience and nanotechnology on the balance. Scientometrics,38(2), 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buzea, C., Pacheco, I. I., & Robbie, K. (2007). Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity. Biointerphases,2(4), MR17–MR71.Google Scholar
Cameron, N. M. (2006). Nanotechnology and the human future: Policy, ethics, and risk. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1093, 280–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chamas, C. I. (2008). Nanotechnology intellectual property in Brazil: Preliminary research note. World Patent Information,30(2), 146–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coatrieux, J. L., Bansard, J. Y., & Kerbaol, M. (2004). About the use of bibliometry for evaluation. Innovation and Technology in Biology and Medicine,25(1), 61–66.Google Scholar
Daim, T. U., Rueda, G., Martin, H., & Gerdsri, P. (2006). Forecasting emerging technologies: Use of bibliometrics and patent analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change,73(8), 981–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erdi, P., Makovi, K., Somogyvari, Z., Strandburg, K., Tobochnik, J., Volf, P., et al. (2012). Prediction of emerging technologies based on analysis of the US patent citation network. Scientometrics. doi 10.1007/s11192-012-0796-4.
Feldman, R., & Sanger, J. (2007). The text mining handbook. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Fernandes, M. F. M., & Filgueiras, C. A. L. (2008). Um panorama da nanotecnologia no Brasil (e seus macro-desafios). Química Nova,31(8), 2205–2213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, C., & Loh, H. T. (2010). Pattern-oriented associative rule-based patent classification. Expert Systems with Applications,37(3), 2395–2404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Igami, M., & Okazaki, T. (2007). Capturing Nanotechnology’s current state of development via analysis of patents. STI Working Paper 2007/4 Statistical Analysis of science, Technology and Industry, DSTI/DOC (2007) 4 – OCDE. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/6/9/38780655.pdf. Accessed Feb 5, 2011.
Jin, B., Teng, H. F., Shi, Y. J., & Qu, F. Z. (2007). Chinese patent mining based on sememe statistics and key-phrase extraction. Advanced Data Mining and Applications,4632, 516–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchant, G. E., & Sylvester, D. J. (2006). Transnational models for regulation of nanotechnology. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics,34(4), 714–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mccomas, K. A., & Besley, J. C. (2011). Fairness and nanotechnology concern. Risk Analysis,31(11), 1749–1761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mcintyre, R. A. (2012). Common nano-materials and their use in real world applications. Science Progress,95(Pt1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medeiros, E. S., Paterno, L. G., & Mattoso, L. H. C. (2006). Nanotecnologia. In N. Durán, L. H. C. Mattoso, & P. C. Morais (Eds.), Nanotecnologia: Introdução, Preparação, e Caracterização de Nanomateriais e Exemplos de Aplicação. Artliber: São Paulo.Google Scholar
Meyer, M., & Persson, O. (1998). Nanotechnology-interdisciplinarity, patterns of collaboration and differences in application. Scientometrics,42(2), 195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pareto, V. (1949). Quarterly Journal of Economics,LXIII, 147.Google Scholar
Paschoalino, M. P., Marcone, G. P. S., & Jardim, W. F. (2010). Os nanomateriais e a questão ambiental. Química Nova,33(2), 421–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porter, A. L., & Cunningham, S. W. (2005). Tech mining: exploiting new technologies for competitive advantage. United States, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
Porter, A. L., & Rafols, I. (2009). Is science becoming more interdisciplinary? Measuring and mapping six research fields over time. Scientometrics,81(3), 719–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rediguieri, C. F. (2009). Study on the development of nanotechnology in advanced countries and in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,45(2), 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, D. K. R. (2009). Co-evolutionary scenarios: An application to prospecting futures of the responsible development of nanotechnology. Technological Forecasting and Social Change,76(9), 1222–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi-Bergmann, B. (2008). A nanotecnologia: Da saúde para além do determinismo tecnológico. Ciência e Cultura,60(2), 54–57.Google Scholar
Salerno, M., Landoni, P., & Verganti, R. (2008). Designing foresight studies for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (NST) future developments. Technological Forecasting and Social Change,75(8), 1202–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sant’Anna, L. S., Alencar, M. S. M., & Ferreira, A. P. (2013). Patenteamento em Nanotecnologia no Brasil: Desenvolvimento, Potencialidades e Reflexões para o Meio Ambiente e a Saúde Humana. Química Nova,36, 348–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santo, M. M., Coelho, G. M., Santos, D. M., & Filho, L. F. (2006). Technological Forecasting and Social Change,73(8), 1013–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulte, J. (2005). Nanotechnology: global strategies, industry trends and applications. Sussex: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schummer, J. (2004). Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and patterns of research collaboration in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Scientometrics,59(3), 425–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shindo, H. (2005). Nanotechnology standardization in Japan. Stand News,33(7), 36–39.Google Scholar
Tseng, Y. H., Lin, C. J., & Lin, Y. I. (2007). Text mining techniques for patent analysis. Information Processing and Management,43, 1216–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar