, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 347–368 | Cite as

Standardization problem of author affiliations in citation indexes

  • Zehra Taşkın
  • Umut Al


Academic effectiveness of universities is measured with the number of publications and citations. However, accessing all the publications of a university reveals a challenge related to the mistakes and standardization problems in citation indexes. The main aim of this study is to seek a solution for the unstandardized addresses and publication loss of universities with regard to this problem. To achieve this, all Turkey-addressed publications published between 1928 and 2009 were analyzed and evaluated deeply. The results show that the main mistakes are based on character or spelling, indexing and translation errors. Mentioned errors effect international visibility of universities negatively, make bibliometric studies based on affiliations unreliable and reveal incorrect university rankings. To inhibit these negative effects, an algorithm was created with finite state technique by using Nooj Transducer. Frequently used 47 different affiliation variations for Hacettepe University apart from “Hacettepe Univ” and “Univ Hacettepe” were determined by the help of finite state grammar graphs. In conclusion, this study presents some reasons of the inconsistencies for university rankings. It is suggested that, mistakes and standardization issues should be considered by librarians, authors, editors, policy makers and managers to be able to solve these problems.


Standardization problem Finite state technique Data accuracy Data unification Address unification Research evaluation University rankings Citation indexes Nooj 



This article is based on Taşkın’s (2012) MA thesis and was supported in part by a research grant of the Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Center (110K044). We thank Dr. İrem Soydal and Dr. Mustafa Şahiner for their meticulous reading of a draft version of this paper and for their invaluable suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information ManagementHacettepe UniversityBeytepeTurkey

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