Mapping the dynamics of knowledge base of innovations of R&D in Bangladesh: triple helix perspective
- 636 Downloads
Triple helix (TH) collaborations involving university, industry and government provide a networked infrastructure for shaping the dynamic fluxes of knowledge base of innovations locally and these fluxes remain emergent within the domains. This study maps these emergence dynamics of the knowledge base of innovations of Research & Development (R&D) by exploring the longitudinal trend of systemness within the networked research relations in Bangladesh on the TH model. The bibliometric data of publications collected from the Science Citation Index (SCI), the social sciences and the arts and humanities for analysis of science indicators and the patent data collected from the US Patent Office to analyze the patent success ratio as a measure of innovation within TH domains. The findings show that the network dynamics have varied considerably according to the R&D policies of the government. The collaboration patterns of co-authorship relations in the SCI publications prominently increased, with some variation, from 1996 to 2006. Nevertheless, inter-institutional collaboration negatively influenced by the national science and technology (S&T) research policies in the last 5 years due to their evaluation criteria. Finally, the findings reveal that the R&D system of Bangladesh is still undergoing a process of institutionalizing S&T and has failed to boost its research capacity for building the knowledge base of innovations by neglecting the network effects of TH dynamics.
KeywordsTriple helix Research & development Bangladesh government University Industry Innovations
This work was supported by the research fund of Hanyang University (HY-2011-N).
- Abramson, N. (1963). Information theory and coding. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Bertelsmann Stiftung (BTI 2010). Bangladesh country report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2009.Google Scholar
- Chatziparadeisis, A. (2003). The R&D indicators in the knowledge-based economy: The research paradox, at http://www.urenio.org/wp-content/The_Research_Paradox.pdf.
- Dzisah, J., & Etzkowitz, H. (2009). Triple helix circulation: The heart of innovation and development. In: A theme paper presented at the 2009 triple-helix annual conference. Glasgow, UK, 16–18 June, 2009.Google Scholar
- Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdoref, L. (Eds.). (1997). Universities in the global knowledge economy: A triple helix of university–industry–government relations. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
- Granstrand, O. (1999). The economics and management of intellectual property: Towards intellectual capitalism. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Haque, M. M., & Islam, M. N. N. (1997). Promoting industrial competitiveness through technological capability building in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Mimeo.Google Scholar
- Hwang, Y.-S., Kim, S.-S., Byun, B.-M., Lee, K.-H., & Lee, H. (2004). Strategies of promoting industry-academia-research institute R&D partnerships to cope with new technologies-focusing on industry–research institute, interfirm R&D partnerships. In: Policy research report R03-25. STEPI (Science & Technology Policy Institute), Seoul, written in Korean.Google Scholar
- Iqbal, Muhammed Zafar ‘Only 1000 PhD’. (2011). (Prothom Alo (Banglaseshi daily Newspaper), Dhaka, Monday, 6 June, 2011.Google Scholar
- Krishna, V. V. (2006). Mapping research systems in developing countries: Country report: The science and technology system in Bangladesh. Published with the support of UNESCO Forum for higher education, research and knowledge by CREST. France: South Africa and IRD.Google Scholar
- Leydesdorff, L. (2001). Indicators of innovation in a knowledge-based economy. Cybermetrics, 5(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
- Leydesdorff, L., & Scharnhorst, A. (2003). Measuring the knowledge base: A program of innovation studies. Report to the “Förderinitiative science policy studies” of the German Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung. Berlin: Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften; at http://sciencepolicystudies.de/Leydesdorff&Scharnhorst.pdf.
- Leydesdorff, L., Dolfsma, W., & van der Panne, G. (2006). Measuring the knowledge base of an economy in terms of triple-helix relations among technology, organization, and territory. Research Policy, 35(2), 181–199.Google Scholar
- Lundvall, B.-Å. (Ed.). (1998). Innovation as an interactive process: From user-producer interaction to the national system of innovation. In: G. Dosi, C. Freeman, R. Nelson, G. Silverberg, & L. Soete (Eds.), Technical change and economic theory (pp. 349–369) London: Pinter.Google Scholar
- Mahmud, I. (2006). Science and technology development in Bangladesh: Failure in policy implementation, http://www.bdiusa.org/Publications/JBS/Volumes/Volume8/jbs8.2-1-comm3.pdf.
- Momtaz, U. A. (2004). Promoting business and technology incubation for improved competitiveness of small and medium-sized industries through application of modern and efficient technologies in Bangladesh. proceedings and papers presented at the national workshops on promoting business and technology incubation for improved competitiveness of small and medium-sized industries through application of modern and efficient technologies, New York, United Nations.Google Scholar
- Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. (Eds.). (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Shannon, C. E. (1948). Amathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379–423 and 623–356.Google Scholar
- Trotter, I. I. R. T., Briody, E. K., Sengir, G. H., & Meerwarth, T. L. (2008). The life cycle of collaborative partnerships: Evolution of structure and roles in industry-university research networks. Connections, 28(1), 40–58.Google Scholar
- Wagner, C. S. (2008). The new invisible college. Washington: Brookings Press.Google Scholar
- Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar