Small Business Economics

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 47–69 | Cite as

What influences environmental entrepreneurship? A multilevel analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurs’ environmental orientation

  • Jacob Hörisch
  • Jana Kollat
  • Steven A. Brieger


This cross-country study statistically investigates the determinants of environmental orientation of entrepreneurial activity. It builds on a new institutional theory framework and uses data gathered in the course of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor to examine the institutional impacts and individual characteristics which influence the degree of environmental orientation of entrepreneurial activity, using a multilevel analysis. Our key findings are threefold: First, the results indicate that environmental orientation is frequently used as a source for securing legitimacy of entrepreneurial ventures. Second, we find lower degrees of environmental orientation among more educated entrepreneurs. Third, for many variables, such as age, gender and income, differences are observed when compared to earlier findings on the determinants of social entrepreneurship. Policy makers can learn from the analysis that policy measures should not only be designed specifically for environmental entrepreneurship, but also be adapted to the domestic economic circumstances, as, for example, environmental taxes only show significant effects on environmental orientation of entrepreneurial ventures in OECD countries. From a practitioner’s perspective, this indicates that a lack of regulation can provide opportunities for environmentally oriented entrepreneurial ideas.


Environmental entrepreneurship Environmental orientation New institutional theory Legitimacy Cross-country study 

JEL Classifications

L26 Q01 



This paper was presented at the conference “Born to be Green: The Economics and Management of Green-Start-Ups” (University of Southampton, 21–22 May 2015). We thank participants of this conference for helpful comments and suggestions. Furthermore, we would like to thank the organizers of the GEM workshop (Yeditepe University, 16–18 November 2014) and the anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions.


  1. Ambec, S., Cohen, M. A., Elgie, S., & Lanoie, P. (2013). The porter hypothesis at 20: Can environmental regulation enhance innovation and competitiveness? Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 7(1), 2–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arshed, N., Carter, S., & Mason, C. (2014). The ineffectiveness of entrepreneurship policy: Is policy formulation to blame? Small Business Economics, 43(3), 639–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banerjee, A. V., & Duflo, E. (2011). Poor economics: A radical rethinking of the way to fight global poverty. New York, NY: PublicAffairs.Google Scholar
  4. Barley, S. R., & Tolbert, P. S. (1997). Institutionalization and structuration: Studying the links between action and institution. Organization Studies, 18(1), 93–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergmann, H., & Sternberg, R. (2007). The changing face of entrepreneurship in Germany. Small Business Economics, 28(2–3), 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Block, J. H., Kohn, K., Miller, D., & Ullrich, K. (2015). Necessity entrepreneurship and competitive strategy. Small Business Economics, 44(1), 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bosma, N., de Wit, G., & Carree, M. (2005). Modelling entrepreneurship: Unifying the equilibrium and entry/exit approach. Small Business Economics, 25(1), 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosma, N., Levie, J., Bygrave, W. D., Justo, R., Lepoutre, J., & Terjesen, S. (2010). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009 executive report. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA).Google Scholar
  9. Bruton, G. D., & Ahlstrom, D. (2003). An institutional view of China’s venture capital industry. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 233–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruton, G. D., Ahlstrom, D., & Li, H.-L. (2010). Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: Where are we now and where do we need to move in the future? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(3), 421–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chowdhury, F., Terjesen, S., & Audretsch, D. (2015). Varieties of entrepreneurship. Institutional drivers across entrepreneurial activity and country. European Journal of Law and Economics, 40(1), 121–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clemens, C. (2006). Status concerns and occupational choice under uncertainty. Advances in Theoretical Economics, 6, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dacin, P. A., Dacin, M. T., & Matear, M. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: Why we don’t need a new theory and how we move forward from here. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(3), 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davidson, D. J., & Freudenburg, W. R. (1996). Gender and environmental risk concerns: A review and analysis of available research. Environment and Behavior, 28(3), 302–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dean, T. J., & McMullen, J. S. (2007). Toward a theory of sustainable entrepreneurship: Reducing environmental degradation through entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 50–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diekmann, A., & Franzen, A. (1999). The wealth of nations and environmental concern. Environment and Behavior, 31(4), 540–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Djupdal, K., & Westhead, P. (2015). Environmental certification as a buffer against the liabilities of newness and smallness: Firm performance benefits. International Small Business Journal, 33(2), 148–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Edmondson, A. C., & McManus, S. E. (2007). Methodological fit in management field research. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1155–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Estrin, S., Mickiewicz, T., & Stephan, U. (2013). Entrepreneurship, social capital, and institutions: Social and commercial entrepreneurship across nations. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(3), 479–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fortin, N. M. (2005). Gender role attitudes and the labour-market outcomes of women across OECD countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 21(3), 416–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fransson, N., & Gärling, T. (1999). Environmental concern: Conceptual definitions, measurement methods, and research findings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19(4), 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Franzen, A. (2003). Environmental attitudes in international comparison: An analysis of the ISSP surveys 1993 and 2000. Social Science Quarterly, 84(2), 297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Franzen, A., & Meyer, R. (2010). Environmental attitudes in cross-national perspective. A multilevel analysis of the ISSP 1993 and 2000. European Sociological Review, 26(2), 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freytag, A., & Thurik, R. (2007). Entrepreneurship and its determinants in a cross-country setting. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 17(2), 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. García, A. B. (2014). Analyzing the determinants of entrepreneurship in European cities. Small Business Economics, 42(1), 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Geels, F. W. (2011). The mulit-level perspective on sustainability transitions: Responses to seven criticisms. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1, 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gelissen, J. (2007). Explaining popular support for environmental protection: A multilevel analysis of 50 nations. Environment and Behavior, 39(3), 392–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. (2009a). GEM 2009 NES global national level data. Available online at: Last Accessed August 13, 2015.
  30. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. (2009b). GEM 2009 APS global individual level data. Available online at: Last Accessed August 13, 2015.
  31. Global Footprint Network. (2009). The ecological footprint atlas 2009. Available online at: Last Accessed August 13, 2015.
  32. Griffiths, M. D., Gundry, L. K., & Kickul, J. R. (2013). The socio-political, economic, and cultural determinants of social entrepreneurship activity: An empirical examination. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(2), 341–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guodong, Y., & Jiancheng, K. (2009). Investigation on public environmental awareness in Shanghai. In International conference on environmental science and information application technology.Google Scholar
  34. Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Harvey, B., & Schaefer, A. (2001). Managing relationships with environmental stakeholders: A study of UK water and electricity utilities. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(3), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hechavarría, D. M., Ingram, A., Justo, R., & Terjesen, S. (2012). Are women more likely to pursue social and environmental entrepreneurship? In K. D. Iughes & J. E. Jennings (Eds.), Global women’s entrepreneurship research: Diverse settings, questions and approaches (pp. 135–151). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  37. Heede, R. (2014). Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010. Climatic Change, 122(1–2), 229–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hendrickson, L. U., & Tuttle, D. B. (1997). Dynamic management of the environmental enterprise: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 10(4), 363–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hesselbarth, C., & Schaltegger, S. (2014). Educating change agents for sustainability—Learnings from the first sustainability management master of business administration. Journal of Cleaner Production, 62, 24–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoogendoorn, B., & Hartog, C. (2011). Prevalence and determinants of social entrepreneurship at the macro-level. Zoetermeer: EIM/SCALES.Google Scholar
  41. Hörisch, J. (2015). The role of sustainable entrepreneurship in sustainability transitions: A conceptual synthesis against the background of the multi-level perspective. Administrative Sciences, 5, 286–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel analysis. Techniques and applications (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Huybrechts, B., & Nicholls, A. (2013). The role of legitimacy in social enterprise–corporate collaboration. Social Enterprise Journal, 9(2), 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ibeh, K. I. N. (2003). Toward a contingency framework of export entrepreneurship: Conceptualisations and empirical evidence. Small Business Economics, 20(1), 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Inglehart, R. (1995). Public support for environmental protection: Objective problems and subjective values in 43 societies. PS: Political Science and Politics, 28(1), 57.Google Scholar
  46. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kachlami, H. M. (2014). The likely determinants of social entrepreneurship and policy implications. In A. Lundström, C. Zhou, Y. von Friedrichs, & E. Sundin (Eds.), social entrepreneurship (pp. 293–307). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kamakura, W. A. (2011). Common methods bias. In J. N. Sheth & N. K. Malhotra (Eds.), Wiley international encyclopedia of marketing. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Kanji, M., & Nevitte, N. (1997). Environmental support, concern and action: An exploratory crossnational analysis. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 9(1), 66–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kautonen, T., van Gelderen, M., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2013). Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: A test of the theory of planned behaviour. Applied Economics, 45(6), 697–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kirkwood, J., & Walton, S. (2010). What motivates ecopreneurs to start businesses? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 16(3), 204–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. LeBrasseur, R., Zanibbi, L., & Zinger, T. (2003). Growth momentum in the early stages of small business start-ups. International Small Business Journal, 21(3), 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lenox, M. J., & York, J. G. (2011). Environmental entrepreneurship. In P. Bansal & A. J. Hoffman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of business and the natural environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Lepoutre, J., Justo, R., Terjesen, S., & Bosma, N. (2013). Designing a global standardized methodology for measuring social entrepreneurship activity: The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor social entrepreneurship study. Small Business Economics, 40(3), 693–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lortie, J., & Castogiovanni, G. (2015). The theory of planned behavior in entrepreneurship research: What we know and future directions. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 935–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lounsbury, M., & Crumley, E. T. (2007). New practice creation. An institutional perspective on innovation. Organization Studies, 28(7), 993–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2009). Entrepreneurship in and around institutional voids. A case study from Bangladesh. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 419–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Malach-Pines, A., & Schwartz, D. (2008). Now you see them, now you don’t: Gender differences in entrepreneurship. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(7), 811–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McMullen, J. S., Bagby, D. R., & Palich, L. E. (2008). Economic freedom and the motivation to engage in entrepreneurial action. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(5), 875–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meek, W. R., Pacheco, D. F., & York, J. G. (2010). The impact of social norms on entrepreneurial action: Evidence from the environmental entrepreneurship context. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 493–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Melay, I., & Kraus, S. (2012). Green entrepreneurship: Definition and related concepts. International Journal of Strategic Management, 12(2), 1–12.Google Scholar
  62. Menguc, B., Auh, S., & Ozanne, L. (2010). The interactive effect of internal and external factors on a proactive environmental strategy and its influence on a firm’s performance. Jounral of Business Ethics, 94(2), 279–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Meyskens, M., & Carsrud, A. L. (2013). Nascent green-technology ventures: A study assessing the role of partnership diversity in firm success. Small Business Economics, 40(3), 739–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mutch, A. (2007). Reflexivity and the institutional entrepreneur: A historical exploration. Organization Studies, 28(7), 1123–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nagar, R., Thakkar, H., Sapre, S. S., & Vyas, U. N. (2013). Enterprising a greener tomorrow: Role of ecopreneurs. Asian Resonance, 2(3), 216–221.Google Scholar
  66. Neff, R. A., Spiker, M. L., & Truant, P. L. (2015). Wasted food: US consumers’ reported awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. PLoS ONE, 10(6), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Newton, P., & Meyer, D. (2013). Exploring the attitudes-action gap in household resource consumption: Does “environmental lifestyle” segmentation align with consumer behaviour? Sustainability, 5(3), 1211–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. North, D. C. (1991). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. OECD. (2009). OECD stat. dataset: Environmental policy instruments. Available online at: Last Accessed September 04, 2015.
  70. Oreg, S., & Katz-Gerro, T. (2006). Predicting proenvironmental behavior cross-nationally: Values, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Environment and Behavior, 38(4), 462–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Panayotou, T. (1993). Empirical tests and policy analysis of environmental degradation at different stages of economic development. Geneva: Technology and Employment Programme, International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  72. Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J., & Common, M. (2003). Natural resources and environmental economics. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
  73. Pinillos, M.-J, & Reyes, L. (2011). Relationship between individualist–collectivist culture and entrepreneurial activity: Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. Small Business Economics, 37, 23–37. doi: 10.1007/s11187-009-9230-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Plieth, H., Bullinger, A., & Hansen, E. G. (2012). Sustainable entrepreneurship in the apparel industry: The case of manomama. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 45, 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Porter, M. E., & van der Linde, Claas. (1995). Toward a new conception of the environment–competitiveness relationship. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(4), 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  78. Rao, R. S., Chandy, R. K., & Prabhu, J. C. (2008). The fruits of legitimacy. Why some new ventures gain more from innovation than others. Journal of Marketing, 72(4), 58–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Rostam-Afschar, D. (2014). Entry regulation and entrepreneurship: A natural experiment in German craftsmanship. Empirical Economics, 47(3), 1067–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schaltegger, S. (2002). A framework for ecopreneurship. Leading bioneers and environmental managers to ecopreneurship. Greener Management International, 38, 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schaltegger, S., & Hörisch, J. (2015). In search of the dominant rationale in sustainability management: Legitimacy- or profit-seeking? Journal of Business Ethics, 1–18. Online first: 8 October.Google Scholar
  83. Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values. Extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(5), 878–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. Shinnar, R. S., Giacomin, O., & Janssen, F. (2012). Entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions: The role of gender and culture. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(3), 465–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shrivatava, P. (1995). The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Review, 20, 936–960.Google Scholar
  87. Singer, S., Amorós, J. E., & Moska, D. (2015). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2014—Global report. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association.Google Scholar
  88. Staber, U., & Bögenhold, D. (1993). Self-employment: A study of seventeen OECD countries. Industrial Relations Journal, 24(2), 126–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Rockström, J., Cornell, S. E., Fetzer, I., Bennett, E. M., et al. (2015). Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science, 347(6223), 1259855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stephan, U., Uhlaner, L. M., & Stride, C. (2015). Institutions and social entrepreneurship: The role of institutional voids, institutional support, and institutional configurations. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(3), 308–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sternberg, R., & Wennekers, S. (2005) Determinants and effects of new business creation using global entrepreneurship monitor data. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 193–203. doi: 10.1007/s11187-005-1974-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.Google Scholar
  93. Suh, C. S., Chang, P. Y., & Lim, Y. (2012). Spill-up and spill-over of trust: An extended test of cultural and institutional theories of trust in South Korea1. Sociological Forum, 27(2), 504–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Terjesen, S., Bosma, N., & Stam, E. (2016). Advancing public policy for high-growth, female, and social entrepreneurs. Public Administration Review, 76(2), 230–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. The World Bank Group. (2010). Doing business report. Available online at: Last Accessed September 04, 2015.
  96. Thompson, N., Kiefer, K., & York, J. G. (2011). Distinctions not dichotomies: Exploring social, sustainable, and environmental entrepreneurship. In G. T. Lumpkin & J. A. Katz (Eds.), Social and sustainable entrepreneurship. Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth (Vol. 13, pp. 201–229). Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  97. Uhlaner, L., & Thurik, R. (2007). Postmaterialism influencing total entrepreneurial activity across nations. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 17(2), 161–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Valkila, N., & Saari, A. (2013). Attitude–behaviour gap in energy issues: Case study of three different Finnish residential areas. Energy for Sustainable Development, 17(1), 24–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. van Liere, K. D., & Dunlap, R. E. (1980). The social bases of environmental concern: A review of hypotheses, explanations and empirical evidence. Public Opinion Quarterly, 44(2), 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. van Liere, K. D., & Dunlap, R. E. (1981). Environmental concern: Does it make a difference how it’s measured? Environment and Behavior, 13(6), 651–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vecchione, M., Schwartz, S. H., Caprara, G. Vi., Schoen, H., Cieciuch, J., Silvester, J., et al. (2015). Personal values and political activism: A cross-national study. British Journal of Psychology, 106(1), 84–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Velez-Grajales, V., & Velez-Grajales, R. (2014). Is entrepreneurship inherited? A study of intergenerational social mobility in Mexico. Latin American Journal of Economics, 51(2), 247–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Welzel, C. (2013). Freedom rising. Human empowerment and the quest for emancipation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Welzel, C., & Deutsch, F. (2012). Emancipative values and non-violent protest: The importance of ‘ecological’ effects. British Journal of Political Science, 42(02), 465–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. World Bank. (2009). World development indicators. Available online at: Last Accessed August 13, 2015.
  106. World Values Survey. (2009). World value survey wave 5 (20052009). Available online at: Last Accessed August 13, 2015.
  107. York, J. G., & Venkataraman, S. (2010). The entrepreneur–environment nexus: Uncertainty, innovation, and allocation. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 449–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yousafzai, S. Y., Saeed, S., & Muffatto, M. (2015). Institutional theory and contextual embeddedness of women’s entrepreneurial leadership. Evidence from 92 countries. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(3), 587–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zelezny, L. C., Chua, P.-P., & Aldrich, C. (2000). New ways of thinking about environmentalism: Elaborating on gender differences in environmentalism. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 443–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhu, L., & Thatcher, S. M. (2007). The institutional environment for B2B e-commerce adoption: A quantitative study of electronics and textiles firms in Greater China and the USA. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 4(1), 92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob Hörisch
    • 1
  • Jana Kollat
    • 2
  • Steven A. Brieger
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Business Economics, Faculty of Human and Social ScienceAlanus UniversityAlfter (Bonn)Germany
  2. 2.Institute of Corporate DevelopmentLeuphana University LueneburgLüneburgGermany
  3. 3.Center for Leadership and Values in SocietyUniversity of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations