Small Business Economics

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 853–874 | Cite as

Grit and self-employment: a multi-country study

  • Marcus T. Wolfe
  • Pankaj C. Patel


Blending the literatures on grit and self-employment, we propose the role of grit in separating the self-employed from the employed. Based on a sample of 13,210 respondents from nine countries, our results indicate that not only is grit related to self-employment, but also grit is more strongly related to self-employment for risk-takers, females, and younger individuals. The findings are robust, controlling for several individual characteristics and alternate specifications, and have implications for the broader literature on self-employment.


Age Gender Grit Self-employment 

JEL Classifications

D01 J24 J49 L26 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Miller College of BusinessBall State UniversityMuncieUSA
  2. 2.Villanova UniversityVillanovaUSA

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