Small Business Economics

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 1–13 | Cite as

Understanding the dynamics of entrepreneurship through framework approaches

  • Donald F. Kuratko
  • Michael H. Morris
  • Minet Schindehutte


Although entrepreneurship is not a new phenomenon, attempts to study it in a systematic manner are fairly recent. The field of entrepreneurship has evolved in a rather disjointed or seemingly random manner, and entrepreneurship has developed as a business discipline by borrowing, building upon, and adapting theoretical and conceptual work from such fields as sociology, psychology, anthropology, marketing, management, finance, organizational behavior, and engineering. And yet, it would appear that the volume of work attempting to describe, explain, and predict aspects of entrepreneurship has grown to a point where we can begin to develop a more complete and integrated picture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the various theoretical perspectives and frameworks of entrepreneurship and to offer an integrative perspective through a proposed “framework of frameworks” which ties together other existing frameworks, each of which explores a particular aspect of the overall phenomenon of entrepreneurship. The value of using a framework to explain and therefore better understand entrepreneurship is examined.


Entrepreneurship theory Integrated framework Process frameworks Entrepreneurship typologies 

JEL Classifications

L26 (Entrepreneurship) L25 (Firm Performance) L29 (Other) 


  1. Adizes, I. (1988). Corporate lifecycles: How and why corporations grow and die. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez, S. A., & Barney, J. B. (2007). Discovery and creation: Alternative theories of entrepreneurial action. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1, 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvord, S. H., Brown, D. L., & Letts, C. W. (2004). Social entrepreneurship and societal transformation: An exploratory study. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3), 260–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amit, R., Glosten, L., & Muller, E. (1993). Challenges to theory development in entrepreneurial research. Journal of Management Studies, 30(5), 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronsson, M. (2004). Education matters—but does entrepreneurship education? An interview with David Birch. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3), 289–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Autio, E., George, G., & Alexy, O. (2011). International entrepreneurship and capability development—Qualitative evidence and future research direction. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 11–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron, R. A., & Ensley, M. D. (2006). Opportunity recognition as the detection of meaningful patterns: Evidence from comparisons of novice and experienced entrepreneurs. Management Science, 52, 1331–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumol, W. (1968). Entrepreneurship in economic theory. American Economic Review, 58(2), 64–71.Google Scholar
  9. Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 893–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bird, B. (1989). Entrepreneurial behavior. London: Scott Foresman.Google Scholar
  11. Bull, I., & Willard, G. E. (1993). Towards a theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(3), 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Busenitz, L. W., Fiet, J. O., & Moesel, D. D. (2004). Reconsidering the venture capitalists’ value added proposition: An interorganizational learning perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(6), 787–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Steier, L. (2011). Resilience of family firms: An introduction. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(6), 1107–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Churchill, N. C., & Lewis, V. L. (1983). The five stages of small business growth. Harvard Business Review, 6(3), 30–50.Google Scholar
  15. Coviello, N. E., McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (2011). The emergence, advance and future of international entrepreneurship research. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(6), 625–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Bruin, A., Brush, C. G., & Welter, F. (2006). Towards building cumulative knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 585–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dean, T. J., & McMullen, J. S. (2007). Toward a theory of sustainable entrepreneurship: Reducing environmental degradation through entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 50–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeTienne, D. R., & Chandler, G. N. (2007). The role of gender in opportunity identification. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 365–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeTienne, D., Shepherd, D. A., & DeCastro, J. O. (2008). The fallacy of “only the strong survive”: The effects of human capital and extrinsic motivation on the persistence decisions of under-performing firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 23, 526–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Di Domenico, M. L., Haugh, H., & Tracey, P. (2010). Social bricolage: Theorizing social value creation in social enterprises. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 681–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dimov, D. (2011a). Grappling with the unbearable elusiveness of entrepreneurial opportunities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 57–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dimov, D. (2011b). Nascent entrepreneurs and venture emergence: Opportunity confidence, human capital, and early planning. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1123–1153.Google Scholar
  24. Dimov, D., Shepherd, D. A., & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2007). Requisite expertise, firm reputation, and status in venture capital investment allocation decisions. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 481–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edelman, L., & Yli-Renko, H. (2010). The impact of environment and entrepreneurial perceptions on venture creation efforts: Bridging the discovery and creation views of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(5), 833–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Erikson, T. (2002). Entrepreneurial capital: The emerging venture’s most important asset and competitive advantage. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3), 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 696–706.Google Scholar
  28. Gartner, W. B. (1989). Some suggestions for research on entrepreneurial traits and characteristics. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(1), 27–38.Google Scholar
  29. Gartner, W. B., Mitchell, T. R., & Vesper, K. H. (1989). A taxonomy of new business ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 4, 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gielnik, M. M., Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (2012). Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationship between business owner’s age and venture growth. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(1), 127–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gilbert, B. A., McDougall, P. P., & Audretsch, D. A. (2008). Clusters, knowledge spillovers and new venture performance: An empirical examination. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(4), 405–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grégoire, D. A., Barr, P. S., & Shepherd, D. A. (2010). Cognitive processes of opportunity recognition. Organization Science, 21, 413–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grégoire, D. A., Corbett, A. C., & McMullen, J. S. (2011). The cognitive perspective in entrepreneurship: An agenda for future research. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1443–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haynie, J. M., Shepherd, D. A., Mosakowski, E., & Earley, P. C. (2010). A situated metacognitive model of the entrepreneurial mindset. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haynie, J. M., Shepherd, D. A., & Patzelt, H. (2012). Cognitive adaptability and an entrepreneurial task: The role of metacognitive ability and feedback. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(2), 237–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hébert, R. F., & Link, A. N. (1988). The entrepreneur: Mainstream views and radical critiques. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  37. Hébert, R. F., & Link, A. N. (1989). In search of the meaning of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 1(1), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hébert, R. F., & Link, A. N. (2009). A history of entrepreneurship. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Hoang, H., & Gimeno, J. (2010). Becoming a founder: How founder role identity affects entrepreneurial transitions and persistence in founding. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holland, D. V., & Shepherd, D. A. (2013). Deciding to persist: Adversity, values, and entrepreneurs’ decision policies. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(2), 331–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hornsby, J. S., Kuratko, D. F., Shepherd, D. A., & Bott, J. P. (2009). Managers’ corporate entrepreneurial actions: Examining perception and position. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(3), 236–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ireland, R. D., Covin, J. G., & Kuratko, D. F. (2009). Conceptualizing corporate entrepreneurship strategy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(1), 19–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Izard, C. E. (2009). Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 1–25.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, M. V., Coviello, N., & Tang, Y. K. (2011). International entrepreneurship research (1989–2009): A domain ontology and thematic analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(6), 632–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Katz, J. A. (2003). The chronology and intellectual trajectory of American entrepreneurship education. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 283–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kistruck, G. M., & Beamish, P. W. (2010). The interplay of form, structure, and embeddedness in social intrapreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 735–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: Development, trends, challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(3), 577–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuratko, D. F. (2014). Entrepreneurship: Theory, process, practice (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage/Southwestern.Google Scholar
  49. Kuratko, D. F., Hornsby, J. S., & Covin, J. G. (2014). Diagnosing a firm’s internal environment for corporate entrepreneurship. Business Horizons, 57(1), 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. MacMillan, I. C., & Katz, J. A. (1992). Idiosyncratic milieus of entrepreneurship research: The need for comprehensive theories. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McClelland, D. (1987). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Journal of Creative Behavior, 21(2), 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McKelvie, A., & Wiklund, J. (2010). Advancing firm growth research: A focus on growth mode instead of growth rate. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(2), 261–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McMullen, J. S. (2011). Delineating the domain of development entrepreneurship: A market-based approach to facilitating inclusive economic growth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McMullen, J., & Shepherd, D. A. (2006). Encouraging consensus-challenging research in universities. Journal of Management Studies, 43, 1643–1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Merriam-Webster (2014). Online dictionary and thesaurus ( Accessed 12 November 2014.
  56. Miner, J. B. (2000). Testing a psychological typology of entrepreneurship using business founders. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(1), 43–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mitchell, R. K., Busenitz, L., Lant, T., McDougall, P. P., Morse, E. A., & Smith, J. B. (2002). Toward a theory of entrepreneurial cognition: Rethinking the people side of entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(2), 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mitchell, J. R., & Shepherd, D. A. (2010). To thine own self be true: Images of self, images of opportunity, and entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 138–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moroz, P. W., & Hindle, K. (2012). Entrepreneurship as a process: Toward harmonizing multiple perspectives. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(4), 781–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morris, M. H., Allen, J. A., Kuratko, D. F., & Brannon, D. (2010). Experiencing family business creation: Differences between founders, nonfamily managers, and founders of nonfamily firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(6), 1057–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., & Covin, J. G. (2011). Corporate entrepreneurship and innovation (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage/South-Western.Google Scholar
  62. Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., & Schindehutte, M. (2001a). Understanding entrepreneurship through frameworks. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2(1), 35–49.Google Scholar
  63. Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., & Schindehutte, M. (2001b). Classification as a factor in the scientific evolution of entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 11(2), 1–20.Google Scholar
  64. Morris, M. H., Lewis, P., & Sexton, D. L. (1994). Reconceptualizing entrepreneurship: An input–output perspective. Advanced Management Journal, 59(1), 21–31.Google Scholar
  65. Neck, H. M., & Greene, P. G. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: Known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Okhuysen, G., & Bonardi, J. P. (2011). The challenges of building theory by combining lenses. Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 6–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Parrish, B. D. (2010). Sustainability-driven entrepreneurship: Principles of organization design. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 510–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Peredo, A. M., & Chrisman, J. J. (2006). Toward a theory of community-based enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Phan, P. H. (2004). Entrepreneurship theory: Possibilities and future directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(5), 617–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ratnatunga, J., & Romano, C. (1997). A citation classics analysis of articles in contemporary small enterprise research. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(3), 197–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Robb, A. M., & Watson, J. (2012). Gender differences in firm performance: Evidence from new ventures in the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(5), 544–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ronstadt, R. C. (1984). Entrepreneurship. Dover, MA: Lord Publishing.Google Scholar
  73. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shane, S. A. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11, 448–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  76. Shelton, L. M. (2010). Fighting an uphill battle: Expansion barriers, intra-industry social stratification, and minority firm growth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(2), 379–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shepherd, D. A. (2011). Multilevel entrepreneurship research: Opportunities for studying entrepreneurial decision making. Journal of Management, 37(2), 412–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shepherd, D. A., & Patzelt, H. (2011). The new field of sustainable entrepreneurship: Studying entrepreneurial action linking “what is to be sustained” with “what is to be developed”. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 137–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith, N., & Miner, J. B. (1983). Type of entrepreneur, type of firm and managerial motivation: Implications for organizational life cycle theory. Strategic Management Journal, 4(4), 325–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stevenson, H., Roberts, M., & Grousbeck, H. I. (1992). New business ventures and the entrepreneur. Chicago: Irwin Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. Wiklund, J., Davidsson, P., Audretsch, D. B., & Karlsson, C. (2011). The future of entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Woo, C. Y., Cooper, A. C., & Dunkelberg, W. C. (1991). The development and interpretation of entrepreneurial typologies. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(2), 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. York, J. G., & Venkataraman, S. (2010). The entrepreneur–environment nexus: Uncertainty, innovation, and allocation. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 449–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zeelenberg, M. (1999). Anticipated regret, expected feedback and behavioral decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 12, 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zeelenberg, M., van Dijk, E., van den Bos, K., & Pieters, R. (2002). The inaction effect in the psychology of regret. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 314–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald F. Kuratko
    • 1
  • Michael H. Morris
    • 2
  • Minet Schindehutte
    • 3
  1. 1.Kelley School of BusinessIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.Warrington College of Business AdministrationUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Whitman School of ManagementSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations