Russian Journal of Marine Biology

, Volume 30, Supplement 1, pp S43–S55 | Cite as

Brood chambers (ovicells) of cheilostome bryozoans (bryozoa: Gymnolaemata): structure, research history, and modern problematics

  • A. N. Ostrovskii
Invertebrate Zoology


The basic stages characterizing research of brood chambers (ovicells) in cheilostome bryozoans are reviewed, from their first description by J. Ellis in 1755 up to the present. The problems concerning contradictory views of researchers on the structure, formation, and function of ovicells are considered in detail. Special attention was paid to the development of modern terminology. Based on recent data, including paleontological data, the prospects are displayed of studying brood structures in Cheilostomata in order to better understand the phylogeny and evolution of their reproductive strategies.

Key words

brooding ovicells anatomy Bryozoa Cheilostomata evolution 


  1. 1.
    Braiko, V.D. 1967Biology of Rerpoduction of Membranipora zostericola Nordm. (Bryozoa)Zool. zhurn.4611191121Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Viskova, L.A., Postpaleozoic Marine Bryozoans, Tr. Paleontol. in-ta, 1992, vol. 250.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kluge, G.A. 1962Bryozoans of the Northern Seas of the USSRFauna SSSRIzd-vo AN SSSRLeningradGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ostroumov, A. 1886Experience of Bryozoan Research in the Sevastopol Bay in Systematic and Morphological AspectsTr. O-va estestvoznan. imper. Kazan. un-t161124Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reingard, V. 1875Some Communications on History of Development of BryozoansTr. O-va estestv. Imper. Har’kov. un-t9139Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Banta, W.C. 1977Body Wall Morphology of the Sertellid Cheilostome BryozoanReteporellina evelinae, Amer. Zool.177591Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bassler, R.S. 1922The Bryozoa, or Moss AnimalsRept. Smithson. Inst.2633339380Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bassler, R.S. 1953Bryozoa, Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part GUniv. of Kansas PressLawrenceGeol. Soc. of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bishop, J.D.D., Househam, B.C. 1987Puellina (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata: Cribrilinidae) from British and Adjacent WatersBull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Zool.53163Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boardman, R.S., Cheetham, A.H., Blake, D.B.,  et al. 1983BryozoaTreatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Geol. Soc. of AmericaUniv. of KansasColoradoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brien, P. 1960Classe des BryozoairesTrait de zoologieMassonParis10531379Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown, D.A. 1952The Tertiary Cheilostomatous Polyzoa of New ZealandTrust. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.)LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchner, P. 1924Studien uber den Polymorphismus der Bryozoen. 1. Anatomische und systematische Untersuchungen an japanischen ReteporidenZool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tier.48155216Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Busk, G. 1852An Account of the Polyzoa and Sertularian Zoophytes Collected in the Voyage of the Rattlesnake on the Coasts of Australia and Louisiade ArchipelagoNarrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake Commanded by the Late Captain Owen Stanley, During the Years 1846–1850T. and W. BooneLondon343402Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calvet, L. Contribution a l’histoire naturelle des Bryozoaires Ectoproctes marins, Trav. Inst. Zool. Univ. Montpellier. Nouv. Ser., 1900, vol. 8.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Canu, F., Bassler, R.S. 1920North American Early Tertiary BryozoaBull. U. S. Nat. Mus.106XXGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Canu, F., Bassler, R.S. 1923North American Later Tertiary BryozoaBull. U. S. Nat. Mus.125VIIGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carson, R.J.M. 1978Body Wall Morphology of Pentapora foliacea (Ellis and Solander) (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata)J. Morph.1563952Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cheetham, A. 1975Taxonomic Significance of Autozooid Size and Shape in Some Early Multiserial Cheilostomes from the Gulf Coast of the U.S.A.Bryozoa 19743547564Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheetham, A., Cook, P.L. 1983General Features of the Class Gymnolaemata. BryozoaTreatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geol. Soc. AmericaUniv. of KansasColorado138207Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Claparede, E. 1871Beitrage zur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der SeebryozoenZ. Wiss. Zool.21138174Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cook, P.L. 1977The Genus Tremogasterina Canu (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata)Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Zool.32103165Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cook, P.L. 1979Some Problems in Interpretation of Heteromorphy and Colony Integration in BryozoaBiology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms: Syst. Ass. Sp.Academic PressNew York193210Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cook, P.L., Bryozoa from Ghana, Zool. Wet. Mus. Roy. Afr. Cent. Tervuren, Belgique, 1985, vol. 238.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cook, P.L., Chimonides, P.J. 1981Morphology and Systematics of Some Rooted Cheilostome BryozoaJ. Nat. Hist.1597134Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cori, C.J. 1941Bryozoa. Ordnung der TentaculataHandb. Zool. III2263374Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Corrêa, D.D. 1948A embryologia de Bugula flabellata (J.V. Thompson) Bryozoa EctoproctaBol. Fac. Fil. Ciên. Let. Univ. São Paulo. Zool.13771Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Delage, Y., Herouard, E. 1897Bryozoaires—Bryozoaria, Traitè de zoologie concrèteLes Vermidiens—VermideaLibraire C. ReinwaldParis47155Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dyrynda, P.E.J., King, P.E. 1983Gametogenesis in Placental and Non-placental Ovicellate Cheilostome BryozoaJ. Zool. (London.)200471492Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ellis, J. 1755An Essay Towards a Natural history of the Corallines, and Other Marine Productions of the Like Species, Commonly Found on the Coasts of Great Britain and IrelandA. MillarLondonXVIIIGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ellis, J., Solander, D. 1786The Natural History of Many Curious and Uncommom Zoophytes, Collected in Various Parts of the Globe by the Late John Ellis, Systematically Arranged and Described by Daniel SolanderWhite and SonLondonXIIGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gerwerzhagen, A. 1913Untersuchungen an BryozoenSitzungsber. Heidelberg. Akad. Wiss. Math.-nat. Kl. B.9116Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gordon, D.P., Towards a Phylogeny of Cheilostomes—Morphological Models of Frontal Wall/Shield Evolution, Proc. 11th Int. Bryozoology Association Conf. Smithsonian Tropical Res. Inst. Republic of Panama, 2000, pp. 17–37.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gordon, D.P., Genera and Subgenera of Cheilostomata. Interim Classification: Working List for Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Unpublished. 2002.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harmelin, J.-G. 1973Les Bryozoaires des peuplement sciaphiles de Méditerranée: le genre Crassimarginatella Canu (Chilostomes Anasca)Cah. Biol. Mar.14471492Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harmer, S.F. 1902On the Morphology of the CheilostomataQuart. J. Micr. Sci.46263350Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harmer, S.F. 1926The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition. II. Cheilostomata AnascaRept. Siboga Exp., Leiden: E.J. Brill28b181501Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Harmer, S.F. 1934The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition. III. Cheilostomata Ascophora. IRept. Siboga Exp. Leiden: E.J. Brill28c510629Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harmer, S.F. 1957The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition. IV. Cheilostomata Ascophora. IIRept. Siboga Exp. Leiden: E.J. Brill28d6411147Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hass, H. 1948Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Reteporiden mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Formbildungsgesetze ihrer Zoarien und einem Bericht uber die dabei angewandte neue Metode fur Untersuchungen auf dem MeeresgrundZoologica371138Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hastings, A.B. 1964The Cheilostomatous Polyzoa Neoeuthyris woosteri (MacGillivray) and Reginella doliaris (Maplestone)Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Zool.11243262Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hayward, P.J., and Ryland, J.S., British Ascophoran Bryozoans, Syn. Brit. Fauna, 1979, vol. 14.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hayward, P.J. and Ryland, J.S., Cheilostomatous Bryozoa, Part 1. Aetoidea-Cribrilinoidea, Syn. Brit. Fauna, 1998, Vol. 10 (2nd ed.).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hincks, T. 1861Note on the Ovicells of the Cheilostomatous PolyzoaQuart. J. Micr. Sci. New Ser.1278281Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hincks, T. 1873Contributions to History of PolyzoaQuart. J. Micr. Sci. New Ser.131737Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hincks, T. 1880A History of the British Marine PolyzoaJ. Van VoorstLondonCXLIGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hughes, D.J. 1987Gametogenesis and Embryonic Brooding in the Cheilostome Bryozoan Celleporella hyalinaJ. Zool. (London)212691711Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Huxley, T.H. 1856Note on the Reproductive Organs of the Cheilostome PolyzoaQuart. J. Micr. Sci.4191192Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hyman, L.H. 1959The invertebrates: Smaller Coelomate GroupsMcGraw-HillNew YorkVIIIGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Johnston, G. 1847A History of British ZoophytesJ. Van VoorstLondonGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Joliet, L. 1877Contributions and l’histoire naturelle des Bryozoaires des côtes de FranceArch. Zool. Exp. Gen.6193304Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jullien, J. 1888BryozoairesMission scientifique du Cap Horn, 1882–18836192Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jullien, J. and Calvet, L., Bryozoaires Provenant des Campagnes de l’Hirondelle (1886–1888), Résultats des campagnes scientificues accomplies sur son yacht par Albert Ier Prince Souverain de Monaco, 1903, vol. 23.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kluge, G.A. 1975Bryozoa of the Northern Seas of the USSRFauna of the USSRAmerind Publishing Co.New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Korschelt, E., Heider, K. 1910BryozoenLehrb. Vergl. Entwickl. Wirb. Thiere4632694Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lamarck, J.B.P.A.M. 1836Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres: 2 ed.J.B. BailliereParisGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lamouroux, J.V.F. 1816Histoire des polypiers Coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés ZoophytesPoissonCaenGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lang, W.D. 1921Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa (Polyzoa) in the Department of Geology, British Museum (Natural History)The Cretaceous Bryozoa (Polyzoa.) The Cribrimorphs. Part I3CXGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Larwood, G.P., The Morphology and Systematics of Some Cretaceous Cribrimorph Polyzoa (Pelmatoporinae), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Geol., 1962, vol. 6, no. 1.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Levinsen, G.M.R. 1893PolyzoaDet Videnskabelige Udbytte af Kanonbaaden “Hauchs” Togter I De Danske Have Indenfor Skagen I Aarene 1883–1886A.F. Host and Sons ForlagKjobenhavn243306Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levinsen, G.M.R, Mosdyr, Zool. Dan., 1894, vol. 9.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Levinsen, G.M.R. 1902Studies on BryozoaVid. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. For. Kjobenhavn54131Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Levinsen, G.M.R. 1909Morphological and Systematic Studies on the Cheilostomatous BryozoaF. BaggeCopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Levinsen, G.M.R. 1916BryozoaDan.-Exped. Gronlands Nordostkyst 1906–19083433472Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Levinsen, G.M.R. 1925Undersøgelser over Bryozoerne i den danske KridtformationMém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Let. Dan. Cøpenhague. 8 Ser.7283445Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lobastova, E.V., Ostrovskii, A.N. 1994Some New Data on Anatomy and Ovicellogenesis in Two Cheilostome Bryozoans—Scrupocellaria scabra and Callopora aurita from the White SeaFossil and living Bryozoa of the GlobePerm State Univ.Perm4445Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Marcus, E., Bryozoarios marinhos brasileiros, II, Bol. Fac. Fil., Ciên. Let. Univ. São Paulo. Zool., 1938, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Marcus, E., Mosdyr (Bryozóa eller Polyzóa), Dan. Fauna, 1940, vol. 46.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marcus, E. 1941Sobre Bryozoa do BrasilBol. Fac. Fil., Ciên. Let. Univ. São Paulo. Zool.53208Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Milne Edwards, H. 1836Recherches anatomiques, physiologiques et zoologiques sur les EscharesAnn. Sci. Nat. Zool.6553Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Morris, P.A., The Bryozoan Family Hippothoidae (Cheilostomata-Ascophora), with Emphasis on the Genus Hippothoa, Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology, 1980, vol. 10.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Moyano, G. 1968H.I. Positión systematica de los generos Romancheina, Escharoides, Cellarinella y SystenoporaAtti. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano108195211Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mukai, H., Terakado, K., Reed, C.G. 1997BryozoaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-LissNew York45206Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nielsen, C. 1981On Morphology and Reproduction of ‘Hippodiplosia’ insculpta and Fenestrulina malusii (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata)Ophelia2091125Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nielsen, C. 1985Ovicell Formation in Tegella and Four Cellularioids (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata)Bryozoa: Ordovician to RecentOlsen and OlsenFredensborg231224Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nielsen, C. 1990Bryozoa EctoproctaReproductive Biology of InveretebratesIBH Publishing Co.Oxford185200Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nitsche, H. 1869Beobachtungen über die Entwicklungsgeschichte einiger chilostomen BryozoenZ. Wiss. Zool.20113Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nitsche, H. 1871Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Bryozoen. III. Über die Anatomie und Entwickelungsgeschichte von Flustra membranaceaZ. Wiss. Zool.213791Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nitsche, H. 1871On Some Interesting Points Concerning the Mode of Reproduction of the BryozoaQuart. J. Micr. Sci.11155162Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nordmann, M.A. 1839Recherches microscopiques sur l’anatomie et le dévelopment du Tendra zostericola, espèce de polype de la section des BryozoairesAnn. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2.MassonParis185191Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Okada, Y. 1920Notes on Some Species of Retepora and Adeonella Occuring in Japan, with Description of One New Variety and Five New SpeciesAnnot. Zool. Jap.9613634Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ostrovskii, A.N. 1998Comparative Studies of Ovicell Anatomy and Reproductive Patterns in Cribrilina annulata and Celleporella hyalina (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida)Acta Zool.79287318Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ostrovskii, A.N. 2002Brood Chambers in Cribrimorphs Evolved by Fusion of Costae: Further ArgumentsBryozoan studies 2001A.A. Balkema PublishersLisse247255Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ostrovskii, A.N., Schàfer, P. 2003Ovicell Structure in Callopora dumerilii and C. lineata (Bryozoa, Cheilostomatida)Acta Zool.841524Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ostrovskii, A.N. and Taylor, P.D., Systematics of Upper Cretaceous Calloporid Bryozoans with Primitive Spinose Ovicells, Palaeontology, (in press).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pallas, P.S. 1766Elenhus Zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones cum selectis auctorum synonymusP. van GleefLa HagaeXVIGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, M.W. 1926Kurze Bemerkung über den Ovidukt bei den BryozoenZool. Anz.65100102Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pohowsky, R.A 1973A Jurassic Cheilostome from EnglandLiving and Fossil BryozoaAcademic PressLondon447461Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Powell, N.A. 1967Polyzoa (Bryozoa)—Ascophora from North New ZealandDiscovery Rept.34199394Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Prenant, M. and Bobin, G., Bryozoaires. Deuxième partie. Chilostomes Anasca, Faune de France, 1966, vol. 68.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Reed, C.G. 1991BryozoaReproduction of Marine Invertebrates. Vol. VI: Echinoderms and LophophoratesBoxwood PressPacific Grove85245Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reid, J. 1845Anatomical and Physiological Observations on Some ZoophytesAnn. Mag. Nat. Hist.16385400Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Repiachoff, W. 1875Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Tendra zostericolaZ. Wiss. Zool.25129142Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ristedt, H. 1985Cribrilaria-Arten (Bryozoa) des Indopazifiks (Rotes Meer, Seychellen, Philippinen)Mitt. Geol.-Pal. Inst. Univ. Hamburg591538Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ryland, J.S. 1962Biology and Identification of Intertidal PolyzoaField Stud.1119Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ryland, J.S., Polyzoa, Catalogue of Main Marine Fouling Organisms (Found on Ships Coming into European-Waters), 1965, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ryland, J.S. 1968Terminological Problems in BryozoaAtti. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano108225236Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ryland, J.S 1970BryozoansHutchinson Univ. LibraryLondonGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ryland, J.S. 1976Physiology and Ecology of Marine BryozoansAdvances in Marine BiologyAcademic PressLondon285443Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ryland, J.S. 1979Structural and Physiological Aspects of Coloniality in BryozoaBiology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms: Syst. Ass. Sp. Vol. 11Academic PressNew York211242Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ryland, J.S. 1982BryozoaEncyclopedia of science and technology: 5th ed.McGraw-HillNew York458466Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ryland, J.S. and Hayward, P.J., British Anascan Bryozoans, Syn. Brit. Fauna, 1977, Vol. 10.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sandberg, P.A. 1977Ultrastructure, Mineralogy, and Development of Bryozoan SkeletonsBiology of BryozoansAcademic PressNew York143181Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Santagata, S., Banta, W.C. 1996Origin of Brooding and Ovicells in Cheilostome Bryozoans: Interpretive Morphology of Scrupocellaria feroxInvert. Biol.115170180Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Silén, L., The Anatomy of Labiostomella gisleni Silén (Bryozoa Protocheilostomata), Kgl. Sven. Vetenskapsakad. Handl. Ser. 3, 1944, vol. 21.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Silén, L. 1945The Main Features of the Development of the Ovum, Embryo and Ooecium in the Ooecioferous Bryozoa GymnolaemataArk. Zool.35A134Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Silén, L. 1977PolymorphismBiology of BryozoansAcademic PressNew York184232Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Smitt, F.A. 1863Bidrag till Kànnedomen om Hafs-Bryozoernas utvecklingUppsala Univ. Arsskrift.3140Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Smitt, F.A. 1865Om Hafs-Bryozoernas utveckling och fettkropparAftr. Öfvers. Konglig. Vetenskaps-Akad. Förhandl.1550Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Soule, D.F. 1973Morphogenesis of Giant Avicularia and Ovicells in Some Pacific SmittinidaeLiving and Fossil BryozoaAcademic PressLondon485495Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ström, R. 1977Brooding Patterns of BryozoansBiology of bryozoansAcademic PressNew York2356Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Taylor, P.D. 1988Major Radiation of Cheilostome Bryozoans: Triggered by the Evolution of a New Larval TypeHist. Biol.14564Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Taylor, P.D. 1994An Early Cheilostome Bryozoan from the Upper Jurassic of YemenNeues Jahrb. Geol. Pal. Abh.191331344Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Taylor, P.D., McKinney, F.K. 2002Brooding in the Cretaceous Bryozoan Stichomicropora and the Origin of Ovicells in CheilostomesA.A. Balkema PublishersLisse307314Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vigelius, W.J. 1884Morphologische Untersuchungen uber Flustra membranaceo-truncata SmithBiol. Centralbl.3705721Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vigelius, W.J., Die Bryozoen, gesammelt wahrend der dritten und vierten Polarfahrt des “Willem Barents” in den Jahren 1880 und 1881, Bijdr. Dierk., 1884b, vol. 11.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vigelius, W.J. 1886Zur Ontogenie der marinen BryozoenMitt. Zool. Stat. Neapel Zugl. Repert. Mittelmeerk6499541Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wass, R.E., Banta, W.C. 1981Catenicellid Cheilostome Bryozoa. II. Introduction to Ovicell ComplexesAustral. J. Zool.29365400Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Waters, A. 1889Supplementary Report on the Polyzoa Collected by H. M. S. Challenger During the Years 1873–1876Zool.31141Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Waters, A., Bryozoa. Résultats du voyage du S. Y. “Belgica” en 1897–1898–1899. Expedition Antarctique Belge. Zool. Anvers. 1904.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Waters, A. 1907Tubucellaria: its Species and OvicellsJ. Linn. Soc. London. Zool.30126133Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Waters, A. 1909Marine Biology of the Sudanese Red SeaJ. Linn. Soc. London. Zool.31123181Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Waters, A., The Marine Fauna of British East Africa and Zanzibar, from Collections Made by Cyril Crossland, M.A., B.Sc., F.Z.S., in the Years 1901–1902. Bryozoa-Cheilostomata, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1913, pp. 458–537.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Woollacott, R.M., Zimmer, R.L 1972Origin and Structure of the Brood Chamber in Bugula neritina (Bryozoa)Mar. Biol.16165170Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Woollacott, R.M., Zimmer, R.L. 1975A Simplified Placenta-like System for the Transport of Extraembryonic Nutrients During Embryogenesis of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa)J. Morph.147355378Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Ostrovskii
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Biology & Soil ScienceSaint-Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations