Russian Journal of Marine Biology

, Volume 30, Supplement 1, pp S1–S16 | Cite as

Current problems in marine biodiversity studies

  • A. V. Adrianov
Marine Biology


This paper deals with a discussion of terminology and six proposed levels of biodiversity. Recent data and estimates were used to compare species and taxonomic diversity of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine organisms. About 1.5 million terrestrial species and 320000 aquatic species are hitherto known. In spite of a long history of research, only about 280000 marine species have been discovered, of which 180000 species are invertebrates. Of 33 metazoan phyla, 31 are found in the sea, 13 of these being exclusively marine. Seventeen metazoan phyla contain freshwater species, and only 11 phyla comprise terrestrial animals. Two phyla (freshwater Micrognathozoa and terrestrial Onychophora) possess no marine species. In this paper, we review the assessment reports on marine biological diversity in coral reefs, coastal ecosystems, macrobenthos, and meiofauna. Recent data on the number of known species are listed for each metazoan phylum; the number of anticipated new species to be discovered is estimated. Deep-sea macrobenthos are believed to comprise about 25 million species; meiofauna seems to be composed of 20 to 30 million species, ten million of whom are marine nematodes. Hypotheses are discussed that can account for the high species diversity of deep-sea macrobenthos and meiofauna.

Key words

biological diversity biodiversity marine biodiversity metazoans macrobenthos meiobenthos plankton biodiversity monitoring 


  1. 1.
    Adrianov, A.V., Malakhov, V.V. 1999Golovokhobotnye (Cephalorhyncha) Mirovogo oceanaKMK Scientific Press LTDMoscow(Cephalorhynchs of the World Ocean)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aleev, Yu.G. 1986EcomorfologyaNaukova DumkaKiev(Ecomorphology)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vorontsov, N.N., Problems of Biodiversity Conservation and Natural History Collections in the Past and in the Future, Second World Congress on Preservation and Conservation of Natural History Collections, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 14–19.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kas’yanov, V.L. 2002Marine Biological Diversity: Exploration, Conservation, and Its Value for HumankindVestn. RAN72495504Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krivolutskii, D.A. 1998Life Forms and Biological Diversity of AnimalsByull. MOIP. Otd. Biol.1046167Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kusakin, O.G. 1995Crisis in Megataxonomy. Looking for a Solution. 1. From Traditional Polyphyletic Systems to Multykingdom Monophyletic OnesBiol. Morya21236250Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mikhalevich, V.I. 2000Phylum ForaminiferaProtisty. Rukovodsvo po zoologiiNaukaSt. Petersburg533627(Protista. Zoology Handbook)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pavlinov, I.Ya. 2001Concepts in Systematics and Concepts in Biodiversity: a Problem of InteractionZh. Obshch. Biol.62362366Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Seravin, L.N., Ctenophora, Biol. Naucho-Issled. Inst. SpbGU. Biol. Ser., 1998, no. 3.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Skarlato, O.A., Starobogatov, Ya.I., Lobanov, A.L., Smirnov, I.S. 1994Data Bases on Zoological Taxonomy and Data on the Higher Animal TaxaZool. Zh.73100116Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sokolov, B.S. 2002Paleontological Aspect of BiodiversityVestn. RAN72910912Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V.A. Stonik Physiologically Active Substances from Marine Organisms Vestn. DVO RAN, (1999), no. 4, 25–33.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chernov, Yu.I. 1991Biological Diversity: the Essence and ProblemsUsp. Sovrem. Biol.111499507Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adler, G.H. 2001Rainforest Ecosystems, Animal DiversityEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York111Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Adrianov, A.V., Murakami, C., Shirayama, Y. 2002Echinoderes aureus n. sp. (Kinorhyncha: Cyclorhagida) from Tanabe Bay (Honshu Island), Japan, with a Key to the GenusEchinoderes, Species Div.74766Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alford, R.A., Richards, S.J., McDonald, K.R. 2001Amphibians, BiodiversityEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York159169Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Angel, M.V., Pelagic Biodiversity, in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes, Cambridge Univ. Press.,1999, pp. 35–68.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Archibald, J.D. 2001Dinosaurs, Extinction Theories forEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York95108Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barbault, R. 2001Loss of Biodiversity, OverviewEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York761775Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barnes, R.D., Harrison, F.W. 1991IntroductionMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York112Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barnes, R.D., Harrison, F.W. 1992Introduction to the AnnelidaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York112Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barnes, R.D., Harrison, F.W. 1994Introduction to the MolluscaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York112Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Birkeland, C. eds. 1997The Life and Death of Coral ReefsChapman and HallNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boucher, G., Lambshead, P.J. 1995Zoological Biodiversity of Marine Nematodes in Samples from Temperate, Tropical, and Deep Sea RegionsConserv. Biol.915941605Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Briggs, J.C. 1994Species Diversity: Land and Sea ComparedSyst. Biol.43130135Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Briggs, J.C. 1999Marine Species DiversityBioScience49351Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Caira, J.N., Littlewood, D.T.J. 2001Worms, PlathelminthesEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York863899Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carey, A.G., Montagna, P.A. 1982Arctic Sea Ice Faunal Assemblage: first Approach to Description and Source of the Under-Ice MeiofaunaMar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.818Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chia, F.S., Harrison, F.W. 1994Introduction to the EchinodermataMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York18Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Claridge, M.F., Dawah, H.A., Wilson, M.R. 1997Practical Approaches to Species Concepts for Living OrganismsSpecies: The Units of BiodiversityChapman and HallLondon116Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clarke, A. 1983Life in Cold Water: The Physiological Ecology of Polar Marine EctothermsAnnu. Rev. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol.21341453Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clement, P., Wurdak, E. 1991RotiferaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York219298Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Coddington, J.A., Colwell, R.K. 2001ArachnidaEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York199218Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Coleman, D. 2001Soil Biota, Soil Systems, and ProcessesEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York305314Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Corliss, J.O. 1991Introduction to the ProtozoaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York112Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cutler, E.B. 1994The Sipuncula. Their Systematics, Biology, and EvolutionCornell Univl.New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dayton, P.K., Hessler, R.R. 1972The Role of Biological Disturbance in Maintaining Diversity in the Deep-SeaDeep-Sea Res.19199208Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunagan, T.T., Miller, D.M. 1991AcanthocephalaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York299332Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dunlap, P.V. 2001Microbial diversityEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York863899Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ellison, R.L. 1984Foraminifera and Meiofauna on an Intertidal Mudflat, Cornwall, England: Populations, Respiration, and Secondary Production; and Energy BudgetHydrobiologia109131148Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Erwin, D.H. 1993The Great Paleozoic CrisisColumbia Univ. PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Erwin, D.H. 2001Mass Extinctions, Notable Examples ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York111122Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Erwin, T.L. 1997Biodiversity at its Utmost: Tropical Forest BeetlesBiodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological ResourcesJoseph Henry PressWashington2740Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Erwin, T.L. 2001Forest Canopies, Animal DiversityEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York1925Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Etter, R.J., Grassle, J.F. 1992Patterns of Species Diversity in the Deep-Sea as a Function of Sediment Particle Size DiversityNature360576578Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Etter, R.J., Rex, M.A. 1990Population Differentiation Decreases with Depth in Deep-Sea GastropodsDeep-Sea Res.3712511261Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fauchald, K. 2001Worms, AnnelidaEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York831842Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fielder, P.L.Jain, S.K. eds. 1992Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and ManagementChapman and HallNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Finlay, B.J. 2001ProtozoaEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York901915Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Funch, P., Kristensen, R.M. 1997CycliphoraMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York409474Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gage, J.D., High Benthic Species Diversity in Deep-Sea Sediment: The Importance of Hydrodynamics, in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, pp. 148–177.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gage, J.D. and Tyler, P.A., Deep-Sea Biology: A Natural History of Organisms at the Deep-Sea Floor, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gans, C., Bell, Ch.J. 2001Vertebrates, OverviewEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York755766Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gardner, S.L. 2001Worms, AnnelidaEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York843862Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gaston, K.G. 1994Spatial Patterns of Species Description: How is Our Knowledge of the Global Insect Fauna Growing?Biol. Conserv.673740Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gee, J.M. 1989An Ecological and Economic Review of Meiofauna as Food for FishZool. J. Linn. Soc.96243261Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gerlach, S.A. 1971On the Importance of Marine Meiofauna for Benthos CommunitiesOceologia (Berlin)6176190Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gerlach, S.A. 1978Food Chain Relationships in Subtidal Silty Sand Marine Sediments and the Role of Meiofauna in Stimulating Bacterial ProductivityOecologia (Berlin)335569Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gibson, R. 1995Nemertean Genera and Species of the World: An Annotated Checklist of Original Names and Descriptions, Citations, Synonyms, Current Taxonomic Status, Habitats, and Recorded Zoogeographical DistributionsJ. Natur. Hist.29271562Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ginsberg, J.R. 2001Mammals, Biodiversity ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York777810Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Greenwood, J.J.D. 2001Biodiversity of BirdsEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York489520Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Grassle, J.F. 2001Marine EcosystemsEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York1325Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Grassle, J.F., Maciolek, N.J. 1992Deep-Sea Richness: Regional and Local Diversity Estimates from Quantitative Bottom SamplesAmer. Natur.139313341Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Grassle, J.F., Sanders, H.L. 1973Life Histories and the Role of DisturbancesDeep-Sea Res.20643659Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Halliday, T. 2001Endangered Reptiles and AmphibiansEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York479487Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hammond, P. 1992Species InventoryGlobal Biodiversity: Status of the Earth’s Living ResourcesChapman and HallLondon1739Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Helfman, G.S. 2001Fish, Biodiversity ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York755782Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hessler, R.R., Sanders, H.L. 1967Faunal Diversity in the Deep-SeaDeep-Sea Res.146578Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Higgins, R.P., Thiel, H. 1988ProspectusIntroduction to the Study of MeiofaunaSmithsonian Inst. PressWashington1113Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hooper, J.N.A., Soest, R.W.M. 2002Systema Porifera. A Guide to the Classification of SpongesKluwer Academic, Plenum PublishersNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Horne, D., Cohen, A., Martens, K. 2002Taxonomy, Morphology, and Biology of Quaternary and Living OstracodaGeophysical MonographsAmerican Geophysical UnionWashington536Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Israelsson, O. 1999New Light on the Enigmatic Xenoturbella (Phylum Uncertain): Ontogeny and PhylogenyProc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. B266835841Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Johnson, Ch.N. 2001Natural ExtinctionsEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York305315Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kiester, A.R. 2001Species Diversity, OverviewEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York441451Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kozloff, E.N. 19933 New Species of Stoecharthrum (Phylum Orthinectida)Cah. Biol.34523534Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kristensen, R.M., Funch, P. 2000Micrognathozoa: A New Class with Complicated Jaws Like Those of Rotifera and GnathostomulidaJ. Morphol.246149Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lambshead, P.J.D., Schalk, P.H. 2001Invertebrates, Marine, OverviewEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York543559Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lammert, V. 1991GnathostomulidaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York1940Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Levinton, J.S. 2001Extinction, Rates ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York715729Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Limburg, K.E., Swaney, D.P., Strayer, D.L. 2001River EcosystemsEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York213231Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lindberg, D.R. 2001MolluscsEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York235247Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lovei, G.L. 2001Extinctions, Modern Examples ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York731743Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lovejoy, T.E. 1980A Projection of Species ExtinctionsThe Global 2000 Report to the President. Council on Environmental QualityUS Government Printing OfficeWashington328331Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lovejoy, T.E. 1997Biodiversity: What is It?Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological ResourcesJoseph Henry PressWashington714Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lynn, D.H., Corliss, J.O. 1991CiliophoraMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York333468Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Martin, J.W. and Davis, G.E., An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea, Natur. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County Sci. Ser., 2001, no. 39, p. 21.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    May, R.M. 1994Biological Diversity: Differences between Land and SeaPhil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B343105111Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    May, R.M., Lawton, J.H., Stork, N.E. 1995Assessing Extinction RatesExtinction RatesOxford Univ. PressOxford124Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Montagna, P.A. 1984In Situ Measurements of Meiobenthic Grazing Rates on Sediment Bacteria and Edaphic DiatomsMar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.18119130Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nielsen, C., Animal Evolution (Interrelationships of the Living Phyla), Oxford Univ. Press, 2001, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nielsen, C., Jesperson, A. 1997EntoproctaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York1343Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Orme, C.D.L., Quicke, D.L.J., Cook, J.M., Purvis, A. 2002Body Size Does Not Predict Species Richness among the Metazoan PhylaJ. Evol. Biol.15235247Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pace, N.R. 1999Microbial Ecology and DiversityASM News65328333Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Palmer, M.A. 1997Biodiversity and Ecosystem Process in Fresh-Water SedimentsAmbio.28571577Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Palmer, M.A., Lake, P.S. 2001Invertebrates, Freshwater, OverviewEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York531542Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Parazinska, D., Wall, D.H. 2001Soil ConservationEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York315326Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pierrot-Bults, A.C., Biological Diversity in Oceanic Macrozooplankton, in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, pp. 69–93.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Poore, G.S.B. and Wilson, G.D.F., Marine Species Richness, Nature, 1993, no. 361, p. 579.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Porter, J.W., Tougas, J.I. 2001Reef Ecosystems: Threads to Their biodiversityEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York7395Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Primack, R.B., Essentials of Conservation Biology, Sanderland, USA, 1998, pp. 1–659.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Primack, R.B. 2001Extinctions, Causes ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York697713Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rand, D.M. 1994Thermal Habit, Metabolic Rate and the Evolution of Mitochondrial DNATrends in Ecology and Evolution9125131Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ray, G.C. 2001Estuarine EcosystemsEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York579591Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Reaka-Kudla, L.M. 1997The Global Biodiversity of Coral Reefs: A Comparison with Rain ForestsBiodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological ResourcesJoseph Henry PressWashington83108Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Reaka-Kudla, L.M. 2001CrustaceansEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York915943Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rex, M.A. 1981Community Structure in the Deep-Sea BenthosAnnu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.12331353Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rex, M.A., Etter, R.J., and Stuart, S.T., Large-Scale Patterns of Species Diversity in the Deep-Sea Benthos, in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, pp. 94–121.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ruppert, E.E. 1991GastrotrichaMicroscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York41110Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ruppert, E.E. and Barnes, R.D., Invertebrate Zoology, Saunders College Publishing, 1996, 6th ed.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sanders, H.L. 1968Marine Benthic Diversity: A Comparative StudyAmer. Natur.102243282Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sand-Jensen, K. 2001Freshwater Ecosystems, Human Impact onEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York89108Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schulze, E.D., Mooney, H.A. 1994Ecosystem Function of Biodiversity: A SummaryEcosystem Function of BiodiversitySpringerNew York497510Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sepkoski, J.J. 1997Biodiversity: Past, Present, and FutureJ. Paleontol.71533539Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sepkoski, J.J. 2001Mass Extinctions, Concept ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York97110Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Shirayama, Y. 1983Size Structure of Deep-Sea Meio- and Macrobenthos in the Western PacificInt. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol.6799810Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Shirayama, Y. 1984The Abundance of Deep-Sea Meiobenthos in the Western Pacific in Relation to Environmental FactorsOceanol. Acta7113121Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Signor, P.W. 1994Biodiversity in Geological TimeAmer. Zool.342332Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Snelgrove, P.V.R. 2001Marine SedimentsEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York7184Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stork, N.E. 1993How Many Species Are There?Biodiv. Conserv.2215232Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Stork, N.E. 1997Measuring Global Biodiversity and Its DeclineBiodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our biological ResourcesJoseph Henry PressWashington4168Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Thiel, H. 1975The Size and Structure of the Deep-Sea BenthosInt. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol.60575606Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Thiel, H. 1983Meiobenthos and Nanobenthos of the Deep-SeaThe SeaJohn Wiley and SonsNew York167230Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Tickell, C., The Value of Diversity, in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, pp. xiii–xxii.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vermeij, G.J., Evolution and Escalation: An Ecological History of Life, Princeton Univ. Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Volk, Th.J. 2001FungiEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York141163Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Warwick, R.M., Joint, I.R., Radford, P.J. 1979Secondary Production of the Benthos of an Estuarine EnvironmentEcological Processes in Coastal EnvironmentsBlackwell Sci. Publ. CoOxford429450Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Williamson, M., Marine Biodiversity in Its Global Context, in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Whitton, J., Rajakaruna, N. 2001Plant Biodiversity, OverviewEncyclopedia of BiodiversityAcademic PressNew York621630Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Woollacott, R.M., Harrison, F.M. 1997Introduction. Chapter 1Microscopic Anatomy of InvertebratesWiley-Liss Inc.New York112Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. V. Adrianov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Marine Biology, Far East DivisionRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia

Personalised recommendations