Enantioselective hydrogenation of α-phenylcinnamic acids over cinchonidine-modified Pd/C commercial catalysts
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Enantioselective hydrogenation of α-phenylcinnamic acid (PCA) and p,p′-dimethoxyphenylcinnamic acid (DMPCA) was studied over a variety of commercial 5 % Pd/C catalysts to reveal catalyst properties suitable for obtaining high enantioselectivity. The catalysts were characterized by CO adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is confirmed that pretreatment at 353 K under atmospheric pressure of H2 before modification with cinchonidine is very effective for all the Pd/C catalysts used here to improve the selectivity and reaction rate. It is suggested that the distribution of Pd metal particles is crucial to attain high selectivity (ee% = 79 ± 1 for PCA, 89 ± 2 for DMPCA): a uniform or eggshell-type distribution of Pd is more suitable than an egg-white or egg-yolk-type distribution. It is also suggested that the dispersion of Pd metal particles controls the enantioselectivity over cinchonidine (CD)-modified Pd/C catalysts. XPS techniques are proposed to provide a convenient method to find desirable catalysts. The choice of such Pd/C catalysts could facilitate high-throughput guided study on highly enantioselective hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids.
KeywordsEnantioselective hydrogenation Heterogeneous catalysis Pd/C Cinchonidine α,β-Unsaturated carboxylic acid
We would like to express our sincere thanks to Evonik Industries AG and N.E. Chemcat Co. for donating the Pd/C catalysts used in the present study.
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