Adsorptive removal of lead(II) from an aqueous solution by chemically modified cottonseed cake
- 135 Downloads
The present study explores the ability of activated carbon prepared from sulphuric acid-treated cottonseed cake (SCSC) by chemical activation with sulphuric acid for the removal of Pb(II) from an aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out by varying several conditions such as contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature along with commercial activated carbon (CAC). According to the experimental results, the equilibrium time and optimal pH range were found to be 3 h and 4.0–6.0, respectively. The equilibrium data were analysed based on the Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich–Peterson and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms using nonlinear regression analysis and fit well with the Langmuir model. Based on the Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity was found to be 115.86 mg/g for SCSC, which was substantially (5.3 times) greater than that of CAC (21.69 mg/g) at 300 K. The thermodynamic investigations indicated that the adsorption reactions were spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The results of the kinetic study showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) could be described by the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting that the adsorption process is presumably chemisorptions with film diffusion. A single-stage batch adsorber was designed for different adsorbent dose using the Langmuir equation.
KeywordsActivated carbon Adsorption Pb(II) Isotherms Kinetics Thermodynamics
The authors would like to thank the Chairman, Department of Chemistry, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Anna University, Chennai (India), for providing research facilities.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
- 3.ISI, Tolerance limits for industrial effluents prescribed by Indian Standards Institution. IS: 2490 (Part II), New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- 13.K.B. Nagashanmugam, K. Srinivasan, J. Environ. Sci. Eng. 52, 349 (2010)Google Scholar
- 18.ISI 877, Methods of sampling and tests for activated carbon used for decolourising vegetable oils and sugar solutions (1977)Google Scholar
- 26.L.D. Michelsen, P.G. Gideon, E.G. Pace, L.H. Kutal, Office Water Res. Technol. Bull. 74, 153 (1975)Google Scholar
- 27.H.M.F. Freundlich, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 385 (1906)Google Scholar
- 30.M.M. Dubinin, L.V. Radushkevich, Chem. Zent. 1, 875 (1947)Google Scholar
- 36.S. Lagergren, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakad Handl. 24, 1 (1898)Google Scholar
- 39.W.J. Weber, J.S. Morris, J. Sanit. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 89, 31 (1963)Google Scholar
- 40.A.K. Bhattacharya, C.J. Venkobachar, J. Environ. Eng. Div. ASCE 110, 110 (1984)Google Scholar