Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 1223–1232 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of different types of epoxide-based Mannich polyols from low-cost cashew nut shell liquid

  • Tejas S. Gandhi
  • Mayank R. Patel
  • Bharatkumar Z. Dholakiya


Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a natural aromatic organic oil consisting of phenolic compounds with interesting structures. Extraction of CNSL was performed in a Soxhlet apparatus. The major (90 %) component of CNSL is anacardic acid, which is easily decarboxylated to cardanol (10 %) by use of conventional methods. In this paper we describe a three-step synthesis of Mannich polyols for rigid foams. The first step is synthesis of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine (the Mannich precursor) by condensation of paraformaldehyde and diethanolamine. The second step involves synthesis of the Mannich base phenolic ring of cardanol by reaction with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine. The third step is alkoxylation. The synthesized polyols were characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography.


Cashew nut shell liquid Mannich precursor Mannich base Mannich polyols 



The author wish to thank the Department of Applied Chemistry, SVNIT, Surat, for providing laboratory facilities, and Gujarat Cashew Industrial (Kutch, Gujarat, India), for providing the initial product. Analytical facilities provided by the Centre of Excellence, Vapi, Gujarat, India, and Punjab University, Chandigarh, India, are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tejas S. Gandhi
    • 1
  • Mayank R. Patel
    • 2
  • Bharatkumar Z. Dholakiya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistrySardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT)SuratIndia
  2. 2.Chemical Sciences DepartmentN. V. Patel College of Pure & Applied SciencesVallabh VidyanagarIndia

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