Eu(III) containing M-layered silicates (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were prepared using the layered silicates, such as ilerite, magadiite, and kenyaite, as a host matrix and the luminescence properties were investigated. The results from the luminescence measurements indicated that the luminescence properties in the EuM-layered silicate system depended strongly on the types of host matrices and alkali cations. Among the EuM-layered silicates, EuM-ilerite exhibited the strongest luminescence intensity for all alkali cations, whereas EuM-kenyaite exhibited relatively weak luminescence intensity. The luminescence intensity was significantly increased by heat treatment at high temperature, mainly due to the phase change of host matrices and the presence of alkali cations in the host matrices. Particularly, the luminescence intensity of EuM-layered silicate calcined at 1,000 °C increased with the increase of the ion size of alkali cations.