Research in Higher Education

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 81–107 | Cite as

Measuring The Change in Faculty Perceptions Over Time: An Examination of Their Worklife and Satisfaction

  • Vicki J. Rosser


In this study, a two-group structural equation model was proposed and tested to investigate the change in faculty members’ perceptions of their worklife and satisfaction over time. Using the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty [i.e., NSOPF:93–99, National Center for Educational Statistics, US Department of Education, National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, Faculty Survey. Washington, DC, 1993–1999] restricted databases, this study examines the conceptual and measurement differences across two National samples of research faculty members. The model suggests that three dimensions of worklife and four dimensions of satisfaction may be useful in the monitoring of faculty members’ perceptions changing over time. The results indicate that the construct validity of the model was supported across the two groups. Moreover, that worklife and satisfaction were stable with respect to the number of factors, item loadings, and factor intercorrelations. There was also substantial equivalence across the two groups.


two-group structural model faculty worklife satisfaction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aquirre, Jr. 2000. Women and minority faculty in the academic workplace: Recruitment, retention, and academic culture. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 27(6)Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, L. B., Agago, M. O., Coombs, W. T. 1998Effects of job-related stress on faculty intention to leave academiaResearch in Higher Education39457469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blackburn, R. T., Lawrence, J. H. 1995Faculty at Work: Motivation, Expectation, SatisfactionJohns Hopkins University PressBaltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowen, H. R., Schuster, J. H. 1986American Professors: A National Resource ImperiledOxford University PressOxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyer, E. L. 1990Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the ProfessoriateCarnegie Foundation for the Advancement of TeachingPrinceton, NJGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyer, E. L., Altbach, P. G., Whitlaw, M. 1994The Academic Profession: An International PerspectiveCarnegie Foundation for the Advancement of TeachingPrinceton, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. Fairweather, J. S. 1996Faculty Work and Public Trust: Restoring the Value of Teaching and Public Service in American Academic LifeAllyn & BaconNeedham Heights, MAGoogle Scholar
  8. German, J., and Green, K. (1996). Integration of Technology into Classroom Instruction Most Important Technology Issue Facing Colleges. Claremont Graduate University News release dated 11/15/96, <>.Google Scholar
  9. Groves, M. M., Zemel, P. C. 2000Instructional Technology Adoption in Higher Education: An Action Research Case StudyInternational Journal of Instructional Media2757Google Scholar
  10. Hagedorn, L. S. 1996Wage equity and female faculty job satisfaction: The role of wage differentials in a job satisfaction causal modelResearch in Higher Education37569598Google Scholar
  11. Herzberg, F. I. 1966Work and the Nature of ManWorld Publishing CompanyClevelandGoogle Scholar
  12. Herzberg, F.I., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B. B. 1959The Motivation to WorkJohn Wiley & SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu, L. T., Bentler, P. M. 1995Evaluating model fitHoyle, R. H. eds. Structural Equation ModelingSage PublicationsThousand Oaks, CA7699Google Scholar
  14. Johnsrud, L. K. 1996Maintaining Morale: A Guide to Assessing the Morale of Midlevel Administrators and FacultyCollege and University Personnel AssociationWashington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnsrud, L. K. 2002Measuring the quality of faculty and administrative worklife: Implications for college and university campusesResearch in Higher Education43379395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnsrud, L. K., Heck, R. H. 1994A university’s faculty: Predicting those who will stay and those who leaveJournal for Higher Education Management107184Google Scholar
  17. Johnsrud, L. K., Heck, R. H. 1998Faculty Worklife: Establishing Benchmarks Across GroupsResearch in Higher Education39539555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnsrud, L. K., Rosser, V. J. 2002Faculty members’ morale and their intentions to leave: A multilevel explanationThe Journal of Higher Education713459Google Scholar
  19. Johnsrud, L. K., Sadao, K. C. 1998The common experience of “otherness: ” Ethnic and racial minority facultyThe Review of Higher Education21315342Google Scholar
  20. Kenny, D. A., McCoach, D. B. 2003Effect of the number of variables on measures of fit in structural equation modelingStructural Equation Modeling10333351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kerlin, S. P., Dunlap, D. M. 1993For richer. For poorer: Faculty morale in periods of austerity and retrenchmentThe Journal of Higher Education64348377Google Scholar
  22. Kuh, G. D., Hu, S. 2001The effects of student-faculty interaction in the 1990sThe Review of Higher Education24309332Google Scholar
  23. Layzell, D.T. 1996Faculty workload and productivity: Recurrent issues with new imperativesThe Review of Higher Education19267281Google Scholar
  24. Loehlin, J. C. 1998Latent variable models: An introduction to factorpathand structural analysis3Lawrence ErlbaumMahwahNJGoogle Scholar
  25. MagnerD. K. (1999, September 3). The graying professoriate. The Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A18.Google Scholar
  26. Manger, T., Eikeland, O. 1990Factors predicting staff’s intentions to leave the universityHigher Education19281291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Matier, M. W. 1990Retaining faculty: A tale of two campusesResearch in Higher Education313960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muthén L.K., and Muthén B. O. (2004). Mplus: The comprehensive modeling program for applied researchers user’s guideVersion 3.11. Los Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
  29. NSOPF:93–99, National Center for Educational Statistics (1993, 1999). US Department of Education, National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, Faculty Survey. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. Olsen, D. 1993Work satisfaction and stress in the first and third year of academic appointmentThe Journal of Higher Education64453471Google Scholar
  31. Olsen, D., Maple, S. A., Stage, F. K. 1995Women and minority faculty job satisfaction: Professional role interests, professional, satisfactions, and institutional fitThe Journal of Higher Education66267293Google Scholar
  32. Olsen, D., Near, J. P. 1994Role conflict and faculty satisfactionThe Review of Higher Education17179195Google Scholar
  33. Paulson, K. 2002Reconfiguring faculty roles for virtual settingsThe Journal of Higher Education73123140Google Scholar
  34. Perna, L. W. 2001aSex differences in faculty salaries: A cohort analysisThe Review of Higher Education24283307Google Scholar
  35. Perna, L. W. 2001bSex and race differences in faculty tenure and promotionResearch in Higher Education42541567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Plater, W. M. 1995Future work: Faculty time in the 21st centuryChange272233Google Scholar
  37. Privateer, P. M. 1999Academic technology and the future of higher education: Strategic paths taken and not takenThe Journal of Higher Education706079Google Scholar
  38. Raykov, T., Marcoulides, G. A. 2000A first course in structural equation modelingLawrence ErlbaumMahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  39. Rice, E. R., Austin, A. E. 1988Faculty morale: What exemplary colleges do rightChange205158Google Scholar
  40. Rice, M. L., Miller, M. T. 2001Faculty involvement in planning for the use and integration of instructional and administrative technologiesJournal of Research on Computing in Education33328336Google Scholar
  41. Rosser, V. J. 2004Faculty members’ intentions to leave: A national study on their worklife and satisfactionResearch in Higher Education4523234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smart, J. C. 1990A causal model of faculty turnover intentionsResearch in Higher Education31405424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tack, M. W., Patitu, C. L. 1992Faculty job satisfaction: Women and minorities in perilThe George Washington University, School of Education and Human DevelopmentWashington, DCASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4.Google Scholar
  44. Turner, C. S. V., Myers, S. L. 2000Faculty of color in academe: Bittersweet successAllyn and BaconNeedham Heights, MAGoogle Scholar
  45. Weiler, W. C. 1985Why do faculty members leave the university?Research in Higher Education23270277CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Leadership & Policy AnalysisUniversity of Missouri-ColumbiaColumbia

Personalised recommendations