Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 517–544 | Cite as

Selectivity of fishing gears used in the Baltic Sea cod fishery

  • Niels Madsen
Research Paper


The Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) plays a very significant role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem being the major fish top predator and the most important commercial species for the Baltic Sea fishing industry. Consequently the management and understanding of the exploitation pattern of the stock is of major importance. Technical regulations, improving the selectivity of cod, have been a major management strategy and the Baltic Sea is likely to be the area where most fishing gear selectivity studies, focussing on size selectivity, have been conducted over time. The methodology for conducting and analysing selectivity data has been significantly improved in recent years. The subject is reviewed since the choice of methodology can have a significant effect on the interpretation of the outcome of selectivity experiments. Factors affecting the selectivity of trawl and gill nets are considered. Alternative ways to improve the size and species selectivity of trawls using selective devices are reviewed. Selectivity parameters from available literature are listed and the correlations of selectivity parameters to the mesh size for different gears are estimated. The historical legislation on selectivity is reviewed and the expected selectivity for trawls is estimated. Management considerations concerning the mortality of escaping and discarded fish and wider management impacts have to be considered if improving selectivity. The review is ended by conclusions including reflections on needed research in the future.


Baltic Sea Baltic Cod Mesh selectivity Trawl Gill net Gadus morhua 



This work was carried out with funds to the TEMAS project sponsored by the Directorate for Food, Fisheries and Agri Business. Thanks are due to colleagues for comments and discussions, particularly Mariana Horsten and Bo Lundgren and to Vesa Tscernij for use of a drawing (Fig. 1), anonymous referees and the editor for very useful comments.


  1. Anon (1940) Dansk FiskeriårbogGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon (1950) Dansk FiskeriårbogGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon (1960) Dansk FiskeriårbogGoogle Scholar
  4. Anon (1970) Dansk FiskeriårbogGoogle Scholar
  5. Anon (1974) International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission. In: Proceedings of the 1st session, Warsaw, October 28–31, 1974Google Scholar
  6. Anon (1976) International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission. In: Proceedings of the 2nd session, Warsaw, Sep 27-Oct 1, 1976Google Scholar
  7. Anon (1977) International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission. In: Proceedings of the 3rd session, Warsaw, Sep 13–20, 1977Google Scholar
  8. Anon (1988) EC council regulation No. 2178/88, 18 July 1988Google Scholar
  9. Anon (1989) EC council regulation No. 887/89, 5 April 1989Google Scholar
  10. Anon (1995a) EC council regulation No. 2250/95, 18 December 1995Google Scholar
  11. Anon (1995b) EC council regulation No. 3362/94, 20 December 1994Google Scholar
  12. Anon (1999) EC council regulation No. 48/99, 18 December 1998Google Scholar
  13. Anon (2001a) EC council regulation No. 2555/2001, 18 December 2001Google Scholar
  14. Anon (2001b) International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission. Extraordinary session—BACOMA, Brussels, 13–14 March 2001Google Scholar
  15. Anon (2002) EC council regulation No. 2341/2002, 20 December 2002Google Scholar
  16. Anon (2003) EC council regulation No. 1754/2003, 22 September 2003Google Scholar
  17. Anon (2005) EC council regulation No. 2187/2005, 21 December 2005Google Scholar
  18. Bagge O (1978) Danish mesh selection experiments with cod in the Baltic. ICES CM 1978/J:17Google Scholar
  19. Bagge O, Thurow F, Steffensen E, Bay J (1994) The Baltic cod. Dana 10:1–28Google Scholar
  20. Baranov FI (1948) Theory and assessment of fishing gear, Chap 7. Theory of fishing with gillnets. Pishchepromizdat, Moscow (Translated from Russian by the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. Maplc. Ont.)Google Scholar
  21. Bergham R, Rösner HU (1992) A method to quantify feeding of seabirds on discard from the shrimp fishery in the North Sea. Neth J Sea Res 28(4):347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beverton RJH (1963) Escape of fish through different parts of a codend. Spec Publ ICNAF 5(2):9–11Google Scholar
  23. Blady W, Zaucha J (2000) The selectivity of polyethylene codends with diamond meshes and selective windows in cod trawls. Meddelande från Havsfiskelaboratoriet 329:66–73Google Scholar
  24. Bohl H (1976) Mesh selection of Baltic cod. German experiments in 1975. ICES CM 1976/B:34Google Scholar
  25. Bohl H (1980) Selection of cod by bottom trawl cod-ends in the central Baltic (German experiments 1978). ICES CM 1980/B:8Google Scholar
  26. Bohl H (1981) Selection of cod by bottom trawl cod-ends in the central Baltic (German experiments 1979 and 1980). ICES CM 1981/B:13Google Scholar
  27. Bohl H, Seydlitz HV (1972) Note on the selection of Baltic cod by bottom trawl codends. ICES CM 1972/B:11Google Scholar
  28. Bohl H, Valencia JE (1976) German mesh selection experiments on Baltic cod in 1974. ICES CM 1976/B:33Google Scholar
  29. Briggs RP (1992) An assessment of nets with a square mesh panel as a whiting conservation tool in the Irish Sea Nephrops fishery. Fish Res 13:133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Briggs RP, Robertson JHB (1993) Square mesh panel studies in the Irish Sea Nephrops fishery. ICES CM 1993/B:20Google Scholar
  31. Cieglewicz W, Strzyzewski W (1959) Selection of Baltic cod by cod-ends of different materials. Rapp Proc Verb 147:75–80Google Scholar
  32. DeAlteris JT, Reifsteck DM (1993) Escapement and survival of fish from the codend of a demersal trawl. ICES Mar Sci Symp 196:128–131Google Scholar
  33. Dickson W (1989) Cod gillnet simulation model. Fish Res 7:149–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Evans SM, Hunter JE, Elizal, Wahju RI (1994) Composition and fate of the catch and bycatch in the Farne Deep (North Sea) Nephrops fishery. ICES J Mar Sci 51:155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ferro RST, O’Neill FG (1994) An overview of the characteristics of twines and netting that may change cod-end selectivity. ICES BM 1994/B:35Google Scholar
  36. Ferro RST, Xu L (1996) An investigation of three methods of mesh size measurement. Fish Res 25:171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fonteyne R, M’Rabet R (1992) Selectivity experiments on sole with diamond and square mesh codends in the Belgian coastal beam trawl fishery. Fish Res 13:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fryer RJ (1991) A model of the between-haul variation in selectivity. ICES J Mar Sci 48:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Galbraith RD, Fryer RJ, Maitland KMS (1994) Demersal pair trawl cod-end selectivity models. Fish Res 20:13–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garrod DJ (1976) Mesh selection of Nephrops. Fish Res Tech report no 26, LowesoftGoogle Scholar
  41. Garthe S, Hüppop O (1994) Distribution of ship-following seabirds and their utilization of discards in the North Sea in the summer. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 106:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garthe S, Scherp B (2003) Utilization of discards and offal from commercial fisheries by seabirds in the Baltic Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 60:980–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glass CW, Wardle CS (1995) Studies on the use of visual stimuli to control fish escape from codends: II. The effect of a black tunnel on the reaction behaviour of fish in otter trawl codends. Fish Res 23:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Glass CW, Wardle CS, Gosden SJ, Racey DN (1995) Studies on the visual stimuli to control fish escape from codends: I. Fish Res 23:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Halliday RG, Cooper CG, Fanning P, Hickey WM, Gagnon P (1999) Size selection of Atlantic cod, haddock and pollock (saithe) by otter trawls with square and diamond mesh codends of 130–155 mm mesh size. Fish Res 41:255–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamley JM (1975) Review of gillnet selectivity. J Fish Res Board Can 32:1943–1969Google Scholar
  47. Herrmann B (2005a) Effect of catch size and shape on the selectivity of diamond mesh cod-ends I. Model development. Fish Res 71:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Herrmann B (2005b) Effect of catch size and shape on the selectivity of diamond mesh cod-ends II. Theoretical study of haddock selection. Fish Res 71:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hillis JP, McCormic R, Rihan D, Geary M (1991) Square mesh experiments in the Irish Sea. ICES CM 1991/B:58Google Scholar
  50. Holst R, Moth-Poulsen T (1995) Numerical recipes and statistical methods for gillnet selectivity. ICES CM 1995/B:18Google Scholar
  51. Holst R, Wileman D, Tschernij V, Madsen N (2000) Statistical modelling and analysis of gill net size selectivity data. Meddelande från Havsfiskelaboratoriet 329:149–188Google Scholar
  52. Holst R, Wileman D, Madsen N (2002) The effect of twine thickness on the size selectivity and fishing power of Baltic cod gill nets. Fish Res 56:303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Holt SJ (1963) A method for determinating gear selectivity and its application. ICNAF Spec Publ 5:106–115Google Scholar
  54. Hovgård H (1996) A two-step approach to estimating selectivity and fishing power of research gill nets used in Greenland waters. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:1007–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hovgård H, Lassen H, Madsen N, Moth-Poulsen T, Wileman D (1999) Gillnet selectivity for North Sea Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): model ambiguity and data quality are related. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:1307–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hudson AV, Furness RW (1988) Utilization of discarded fish by scavenging seabirds behind whitefish trawlers in Shetland. J Zool Lond 215:151–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. ICES (1964) Coop Res Rep, vol 2, p 156Google Scholar
  58. ICES (1965) Guide to the presentation of selectivity data. Proc V Réun. CIEM, part 1Google Scholar
  59. ICES (1986) Report of the working group on assessment of demersal stocks in the Baltic. ICES CM 1986/Assess:21Google Scholar
  60. ICES (2000) Report of the ICES advisory committee on fishery management, 2000. ICES Coop Res Rep, part 3Google Scholar
  61. ICES (2003) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on fishery management. ICES Cooperative Research Report, no. 261Google Scholar
  62. ICES (2005) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on fishery management, Advisory Committee on the marine environment and Advisory Committee on ecosystems, 2005. ICES Advice, vol 8Google Scholar
  63. Isaksen B, Løkkeborg S (1993) Escape of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) from Danish seine codends during fishing and surface hauling operations. ICES Mar Sci Symp 196:86–91Google Scholar
  64. Isaksen B, Valdemarsen JW (1986) Selectivity experiments with square mesh codends in bottom trawl. ICES CM 1986/B:28Google Scholar
  65. Jacobsen J (1994) Survival experiments of fish escaping from 145 mm diamond cod-end meshes at Faroes in 1992 and 1993. Reported in ICES CM 1994/B: 2: pp18Google Scholar
  66. Kirkegaard E, Nielsen NA, Bagge O (1989) Mesh selection of Nephrops on 60 and 70 mm Nephrops trawl. ICES CM 1989/B:15Google Scholar
  67. Kirkwood GP, Walker TI (1986) Gill net mesh selectivities for gummy shark, Mustelus antarticus Günther, taken in south-eastern Australian waters. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 37:689–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kuikka S, Hildén M, Gislason H, Hansson S, Sparholt H, Varis O (1999) Modeling environmentally driven uncertainties in the Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) management by Bayesian influence diagrams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:629–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Larsson P-O, Claesson B, Nyberg L (1988) Catches of undersized cod in codends with square and diamond meshes. ICES CM 1988/B:57Google Scholar
  70. Lehman K, Valdemarsen JW, Riget F (1993) Selectivity in shrimp trawl codends tested in a fishery in Greenland. ICES Mar Sci Symp 196:80–85Google Scholar
  71. Lehtonen E, Tschernij V, Suuronen P (1998) An improved method for studying survival of fish that escape through meshes of trawl codends. Fish Res 38:303–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lowry N, Robertson JHB (1996) The effect of twine thickness on cod-end selectivity of trawls for haddock in the North Sea. Fish Res 26:353–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lowry N, Knudsen LH, Wileman DA (1994) Mesh size experiments in the Baltic cod fishery. ICES CM 1994/B:29Google Scholar
  74. Lowry N, Knudsen LH, Wileman D (1995) Selectivity in Baltic cod trawls with square mesh codend windows. ICES CM 1995/B:5Google Scholar
  75. Lowry N, Wileman D, Ferro D (1998) Factors affecting the variability of cod-end selectivity. Fishing gear technology and fish behaviour working group meeting. La Coruña, Spain 1998Google Scholar
  76. MacLennan DV (1995) Gear selectivity and the variation of yield. ICES J Mar Sci 52(5):827–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Madsen N (2000) Experimental adjustments of the escape window position in trawl codends—implications for Baltic Sea cod fishery. Meddelande från Havsfiskelaboratoriet 329:38–56Google Scholar
  78. Madsen N, Holst R (2002) Assessment of the cover effect in trawl codend selectivity experiments. Fish Res 56:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Madsen N, Moth-Poulsen T (1994) Measurements of the selectivity of Nephrops and demersal roundfish species in conventional and square mesh panel codends in the northern North Sea. ICES CM 1994/B:14Google Scholar
  80. Madsen N, Stæhr K-J (2005) Selectivity experiments to estimate the effect of escape windows in the Skagerak roundfish fishery. Fish Res 71(2):241–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Madsen N, Moth-Poulsen T, Lowry N (1998) Selectivity experiments with window codends fished in the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fishery. Fish Res 36:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Madsen N, Holst R, Wileman D, Moth-Poulsen T (1999a) Selectivity of Danish sole (Solea solea) gill nets fished in the North Sea. Fish Res 44:59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Madsen N, Moth-Poulsen T, Holst R, Wileman D (1999b) Selectivity experiments with escape windows in the North Sea Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus) trawl fishery. Fish Res 42:167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Madsen N, Hansen KE, Moth-Poulsen T (2001) The kite cover: a new concept for covered codend selectivity studies. Fish Res 49:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Madsen N, Holst R, Foldager L (2002) Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery. Fish Res 57:223–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Madsen N, Tschernij V, Hansen K, Larsson P-O (2006) Development and testing of a species-selective flatfish otter trawl to reduce cod bycatches. Fish Res 78:298–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Main J, Sangster GI (1991) A different approach to covered cod-end selection experiments. Scott Fish Work paper no. 4/91Google Scholar
  88. Main J, Sangster GI, Kynoch RJ, Ferro RST (1992) An experiment to measure the selectivity of cod-ends using two designs of covers. Scott. Fish Work paper no. 2/92Google Scholar
  89. Marlen B van (1993) Research on improving the species selectivity of bottom trawls in the Netherlands. ICES Mar Sci Symp 196:165–169Google Scholar
  90. Millar RB (1992) Estimating the size-selectivity of fishing gear by conditioning on the total catch. J Am Stat Assoc 87:962–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Millar RB, Fryer RJ (1999) Estimating the size-selection curves of towed gears, traps, nets and hooks. Rev Fish Biol Fish 9:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Millar RB, Holst R (1997) Estimation of gillnet and hook selectivity using log-linear models. ICES J Mar Sci 54(3):471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Moderhak W (1997) Determination of selectivity of cod codends made of netting turned through 90°. Bull Sea Fish Inst 1(140):3–14Google Scholar
  94. Moderhak W (1999) Investigations of the selectivity of codends with meshes turned through 90°. Bull Sea Fish Inst 1(146):39–55Google Scholar
  95. Moderhak W (2000a) Selectivity tests of polyamide and polyethylene codends made of netting with meshes turned through 90°. Bull Sea Fish Inst 1(149):1–9Google Scholar
  96. Moderhak W (2000b) Selectivity properties of polyamide (PA) cod trawl codends made of meshes turned 90°. Meddelande från Havsfiskelaboratoriet 329:57–65Google Scholar
  97. Moderhak W, Blady W, Czajka W (1995) Preliminary studies of vertical separation of cod in a trawl codend. IMR Report No. 327. Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  98. Mohr H (1983) Gute ergebrisse beim dorshfang mit grossmascigen stellnetzen in der westlichen Ostsee. Inf Fischw 30(1):40–43Google Scholar
  99. Netzel J, Zaucha J (1989) Investigation results of cod trawls’ codend selectivity. ICES CM 1989/B:54Google Scholar
  100. Olofsson J, Otterlind G (1978) Swedish mesh selection experiments on Baltic cod in 1977 and 1978. ICES CM 1978/B:2Google Scholar
  101. O’Neill FG, Kynoch RJ (1996) The effect of cover mesh size and codend catch size on codend selectivity. Fish Res 28:291–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. O’Neill FG, Kynoch RJ, Fryer RJ (2006) Square mesh panels in Norths sea demersal trawls: separate estimates of panel and cod-end selectivity. Fish Res 78:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Özbilgin H, Ferro RST, Robertson JHB, Holtrop G, Kynoch RJ (2006) Seasonal variation in trawl codend selection of northern North Sea haddock. ICES J Mar Sci 63(4):737–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pawson MG (2003) The catching capacity of lost static fishing gears. Fish Res 64:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Polet H, Redant F (1994) Selectivity experiments in the Belgian Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus L., fishery. ICES CM 1994/B:39Google Scholar
  106. Pope JG (1991) The ICES multispecies assessment working group: evaluation, insights, and future problems. ICES Mar Sci Symp 193:22–33Google Scholar
  107. Pope JA, Margetts AR, Hamley JM, Akyuz EF (1975) Manuel of methods for fish stock assessment. Part III selectivity of fishing gear. FAO Fish Tech Pap. (41) revision 1Google Scholar
  108. Reeves SA, Armstrong DW, Fryer R.J., Coull KA (1992) The effects of mesh size, cod-end extension length and cod-end diameter on the selectivity of Scottish trawls and seines. ICES J Mar Sci 49:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ridderstad G (1915) A new construction of trawl-net intended to spare under-sized fish. Svenske Hydr.-Biol. Kommisionens skrifter, vol. 6Google Scholar
  110. Robertson JHB, Leaver ID (1989) An experiment with the ICES approved small mesh codend cover. Scott Fish Work paper no. 10/89Google Scholar
  111. Robertson JHB, Stewart PAM (1988) A comparison of size selection of haddock and whiting by square and diamond mesh codends. J Cons Explor Mer 44:148–161Google Scholar
  112. Robertson JHB, Emslie DC, Ballantyne KA, Chapman CJ (1986) Square and diamond mesh trawl codend selection trials on Nephrops norvegicus (L). ICES CM 1986/B:12Google Scholar
  113. Robertson JHB, Lowry N, Kynoch B, Özbilgin H (1995) Improvements in designs of cod-end covers. ICES CM/B:35Google Scholar
  114. Shevtsov SE (1981) Selectivity of the bottom trawl codends with 100 and 110 mm mesh size used for the Baltic cod fishery. ICES CM 1981/B:7Google Scholar
  115. Soldal AV, Isaksen B (1993) Survival of cod (Gadus morhua) and Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) escaping from a Danish seine at the sea surface. Fishing gear Technology and Fish behaviour Working Group meeting, Gothenborg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  116. Sparholt H (1990) Improved estimates of the natural mortality rates of nine commercially important fish species included in the North Sea multispecies VPA model. J Cons Int Explor Mer 46:211–223Google Scholar
  117. Sparholt H (1991) Multispecies assessment of Baltic fish stocks. ICES mar Sci Symp 193:64–79Google Scholar
  118. Sparre P (1991) Introduction to multispecies virtual population analysis. ICES Mar Sci Symp 193:12–21Google Scholar
  119. Strzyzewski W, Szymański W, Zdziebkowski G (1973) Investigations on the selectivity of Baltic cod and flounder carried out in 1972/1973. ICES CM 1973/F:25Google Scholar
  120. Suuronen P, Millar R (1992) Size selectivity of diamond and square mesh codends in pelagic herring trawls: only small herring will notice the difference. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:2104–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Suuronen P, Millar RB, Järvik A (1991) Selectivity of diamond and hexagonal mesh codends in pelagic herring trawls: evidence of a catch size effect. Finn Fish Res 12:143–156Google Scholar
  122. Suuronen P, Lehtonen E, Tschernij V, Larsson P-O (1996) Skin injury and mortality of Baltic cod escaping from trawl codends equipped with exit windows. Arch Fish Mar Res 44(3):165–178Google Scholar
  123. Suuronen P, Lehtonen E, Tschernij V, Jounela P (2005) Escape mortality of trawl caught Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)—the effect of water temperature, fish size and codend catch. Fish Res 71:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Thomsen B (1993) Selective flatfish trawling. ICES Mar Sci Symp 196:161–164Google Scholar
  125. Thorsteinsson G (1992) Experiments with square mesh windows in the Nephrops trawling off South-Iceland. ICES CM 1991/B:3Google Scholar
  126. Thurow F, Bohl H (1976) On survival rates of Baltic cod after capture. ICES CM 1976/P:4Google Scholar
  127. Tokaç A, Özbilgin H, Tosunoğlu Z (2004) Effect of PA and PE material on codend selectivity in Turkish bottom trawl. Fish Res 67(3):317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Treshev AI, Shevtsov SE (1976) Selectivity of bottom trawl cod-end while fishing cod in the Baltic Sea. ICES CM 1976/B:12Google Scholar
  129. Tschernij V, Holst R (1999) Evidence of factors at vessel-level affecting codend selectivity in Baltic cod demersal fishery. ICES CM 1999/R:02Google Scholar
  130. Tschernij V, Larsson P-O (2003) Ghost fishing by lost cod gill nets in the Baltic Sea. Fish Res 64:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tschernij V, Suuronen P (2002) Improving trawl selectivity in the Baltic. Nordic Council of Ministers, TemaNord 2002, p 512Google Scholar
  132. Tschernij V, Larsson P-O, Suuronen P, Holst R (1996) Swedish trials in the Baltic Sea to improve selectivity in demersal trawls. ICES CM 1996/B:25Google Scholar
  133. Tschernij V, Suuronen P, Jounela P (2004) A modelling approach for assessing short-term catch losses as a consequence of a mesh size increase. Fish Res 69:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Votier SC, Furness RW, Bearhop S, Crane JE, Caldow RW, Catry P, Ensor K, Hamer KC, Hudson AV, Kalmbach E, Klomp NI, Pfeiffer S, Phillips RA, Prieto I, Thompson DR (2004) Changes in fisheries discard rates and seabird communities. Nature 427:727–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Walsh SJ, Cooper C, Hickey W (1989) Size selection of plaice by square and diamond mesh cod-ends. ICES CM 1989/B.22Google Scholar
  136. Wienbeck H, Dahm E (2000) New ways for an improvement of the selectivity of trawl codends in the Baltic cod fishery. Meddelande från Havsfiskelaboratoriet 329:80–93Google Scholar
  137. Wileman DA, Ferro RST, Fonteyne R, Millar RB (eds) (1996) Manual of methods of measuring the selectivity of towed fishing gears. ICES Coop Res Rep No. 215Google Scholar
  138. Wileman DA, Tschernij V, Madsen N, Holst R (2000) Size selectivity and relative fishing power of Baltic cod gill nets. Meddelande från Havsfiskelaboratoriet 329:110–148Google Scholar
  139. Zaucha J, Blady W, Czajka W, Moderhak W (1995) Studies of mesh size in cod gill nets with respect to protection requirements. Baltic cod, Symposium Gdynia, Poland March 21–22, 1995:78–86. IMR Report No. 327Google Scholar
  140. Zaucha J, Blady W, Moderhak W (1997) Protective properties of cod trawl codends with selective windows. Bulletin of the Sea Fisheries Institute 1(140):15–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Danish Institute for Fisheries ResearchTechnical University of Denmark, The North Sea CentreHirtshalsDenmark

Personalised recommendations