Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 379–408 | Cite as

A review of the culture potential of Solea solea and S. senegalensis

  • A. K. Imsland
  • A. Foss
  • L. E. C. Conceição
  • M. T. Dinis
  • D. Delbare
  • E. Schram
  • A. Kamstra
  • P. Rema
  • P. White


A number of scientific studies have investigated aspects of soles(Solea soleaandS. senegalensis) ecology, population genetics and biology in their natural environment, and the species have been extensively studied in captivity during the last decade. Studies on the genetic population structure of sole indicate that several distinct breeding populations exist within its distributional range in European waters. Recent studies suggest a phylogenetic relatedness ofS. soleaand S. senegalensis, being found as closest sister lineages in most reconstructions. However, studies on molecular genetics and morphological traits give diagnostic differences that consistently lead to their taxonomic separation at the specific rank. Studies show that sole spawn readily in captivity, and the buoyant, fertilized eggs are easily collected. Stocking density during maturation should be 1–1.5kg/m2, and temperature should be kept above 16°C (S. senegalensis) or between 8 and 12°C (S. solea). In nature, the onset of spawning is related to a rise in temperature occurring during spring (March–June). Salinity should be kept constant around 33–35‰ and the fish reared under simulated natural photoperiod (LDN). In other cultured flatfish species, a change in the photoperiod is the key environmental signal used to manipulate and control maturation, but at present time there are no published work that verifies or contradicts this for either S. senegalensisor S. solea. Studies indicate that a mixture of inert and live food may increase the weaning success of sole fry, and this can be further enhanced by using attractants in the dry feed. Future experiments are needed to determine the ideal time to commence weaning and determine the minimum duration of this period. Studies on alternative feeding strategies are also required. The effect of temperature and photoperiod on juvenile growth has not been studied systematically in neither of the two species and the relative importance of a direct photoperiod effect on growth in sole therefore remains to be defined.

aquaculture biology ecology population genetics Solea senegalensis Solea solea 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Imsland
    • 1
  • A. Foss
    • 2
  • L. E. C. Conceição
    • 3
  • M. T. Dinis
    • 3
  • D. Delbare
    • 4
  • E. Schram
    • 5
  • A. Kamstra
    • 5
  • P. Rema
    • 6
  • P. White
    • 2
  1. 1.Akvaplan-niva, Iceland OfficeKópavogiIceland
  2. 2.Akavplan-niva, Polar Environmental CentreTromsøNorway
  3. 3.CCMAR, Universidade do AlgarveCampus de GambelasPortugal
  4. 4.Centre for Agricultural ResearchBurgenmeester Van Gansberghelaan 96FaroBelgium
  5. 5.Netherlands Institute for Fisheries ResearchAB IJmuidenThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Dept. ZootechnCIMAR, UTADVila RealPortugal

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