Advertisement

International Review of Education

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 317–341 | Cite as

Professionalisation as development and as regulation: Adult education in Germany, the United Kingdom and India

  • Lesley Doyle
  • Regina Egetenmeyer
  • Chetan Singai
  • Uma Devi
Original Paper

Abstract

In this paper, the authors seek to disentangle what they see as contradictory uses of the term “professionalisation” with reference to adult educator development and training (AEDT). They set out to distinguish professionalisation from professionalism, and to identify the locus of control of AEDT in Germany, the UK and India. In these three countries, all of which have a long tradition of adult education, “professionalisation” and “professionalism” are used interchangeably to describe conflicting purposes. The authors aim to identify and critically explore the organisations and policies which control and support AEDT in their own countries using American sociologist Eliot Freidson’s “third logic” model, and drawing on his juxtaposition of “professions”, “the market” and “bureaucracy”. Applying Freidson’s models to the organisations highlights the role of bureaucracy and that where adult education is concerned, national governments, the European Union and aid organisations not only serve bureaucracy but also support the market rather than operating separately from it. While the term “professionalisation” continues to be used to mean professional development, either by adult educators and representative organisations (as in the UK) or by organisations acting on their behalf (as in Germany and India), it is also used to denote regulation and standardisation issuing from bureaucratic institutions and adult education provider organisations in the interests of the market. The authors suggest that Freidson’s model provides a useful tool for adult educators in other countries to reflect on their professional position and to engage in the development of their own professional standards, both in their own interests and in the interests of those they educate.

Keywords

Professionalism Adult education Professionalisation Bureaucracy Market 

Résumé

Professionnalisation synonyme de développement et de réglementation: éducation des adultes en Allemagne, au Royaume-Uni et en Inde – Les auteurs de cet article visent à clarifier ce qu’ils considèrent comme usages contradictoires du terme « professionnalisation » dans le domaine du développement et de la formation des éducateurs d’adultes (DFEA). Ils établissent tout d’abord une distinction entre professionnalisation et professionnalisme, et identifient le locus de contrôle dans le DFEA en Allemagne, au Royaume-Uni et en Inde. Dans ces trois pays, possédant chacun une longue tradition en éducation des adultes, les termes professionnalisation et professionnalisme sont utilisés indifféremment pour décrire des objectifs contradictoires. Les auteurs poursuivent le but d’identifier et d’examiner d’un œil critique les organisations et politiques qui contrôlent et soutiennent le DFEA dans leurs pays, en appliquant le modèle de la « troisième logique » du sociologue américain Eliot Freidson et en s’inspirant de sa juxtaposition de « professions » , « marché » et « bureaucratie » . L’application des modèles de Freidson à ces organisations éclaire le rôle de la bureaucratie et montre que dans le cas de l’éducation des adultes, le gouvernement central, l’Union européenne ou les organisations humanitaires non seulement servent la bureaucratie mais soutiennent aussi le marché au lieu d’opérer indépendamment de lui. Le terme « professionnalisation » continue à être utilisé dans le sens de développement professionnel, soit par les éducateurs d’adultes eux-mêmes et leurs organismes de représentation (au Royaume-Uni), soit par des organismes agissant pour leur compte (en Allemagne et en Inde). Mais il est également employé pour désigner la réglementation et la standardisation émanant des institutions bureaucratiques et des prestataires en éducation des adultes dans l’intérêt du marché. Les auteurs suggèrent que le modèle de Freidson fournit un outil utile aux éducateurs d’adultes d’autres pays, leur permettant de considérer leur situation en termes professionnels afin de prendre en main leurs propres normes, dans l’intérêt de la « profession » quelle que soit sa forme, et de ceux auxquels ils dispensent une éducation.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the support of the ASEM (Asia–Europe Meeting) LLL (Lifelong Learning) Hub (http://asemlllhub.org/fileadmin/www.dpu.dk/ASEM/frontpage/XL_Large2011.pdf) of the Asia-Europe Foundation (http://www.asef.org). Three authors of this paper, Dr Lesley Doyle, Professor Regina Egetenmeyer and Dr D. Uma Devi, are members of the ASEM LLL Research Network 3 (Professionalisation) and it is through the work of the Network that this paper was conceptualised. Our thanks also go to Professors Barbara Kehm and Michael Osborne of the University of Glasgow for their advice and recommendations on earlier drafts of this paper.

References

  1. Ackland, A. (2011). The eye of the storm: Discursive power and resistance in the development of a professional qualification for adult literacies practitioners in Scotland. European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, 2(1), 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AgendaNi (2015). A place for business in education. AgendaNi, 15 June. Retrieved 17 December 2015 from http://www.agendani.com/place-business-education/.
  3. Ball, S. J. (2007). Education PLC: Understanding private sector participation in public sector education. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, S. J. (2008). The education debate: Policy and politics in the twenty-first century. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, S. J. (2012a). The making of a neoliberal academic. Research in Secondary Teacher Education, 2(1), 29–31.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, S. J. (2012b). Global education inc. New policy networks and the neo-liberal imaginary. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Ball, S. (2013). Concept of professionalism [PowerPoint presentation]. Presented to the University and College Union (UCU) on 13 March during a seminar for members entitled “Reclaiming professionalism: Have your say”. London: UCU. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://www.ucu.org.uk/professionalismseminar.
  8. Benn, R., & Fieldhouse, R. (1994). Training and professional development in adult and continuing education. Exeter: University of Exeter, Centre for Research in Continuing Education.Google Scholar
  9. Bezes, P., Demazière, D., Le Bianic, T., Paradeise, C., Normand, R., Benamouzig, D., et al. (2011). New public management and professions in the public administration: Beyond opposition, what new patterns are taking shape? Sociologie du travail, 53(3), 293–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BIS (Department for Business, Innovation & Skills) (2011). European Commission green paper: Modernising the professional qualifications directive. UK government response. Ref: 11/1297. London: BIS. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/professional-qualifications-directive-response-to-the-european-commission-green-paper.
  11. BIS (2012a). Professionalism in further education in the UK. Final Report of the Independent Review Panel. Ref 12/1198. London: BIS. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/422247/bis-12-1198-professionalism-in-further-education-review-final-report.pdf.
  12. BIS (2012b). Evaluation of FE teachers’ qualifications (England). Regulations 2007. BIS Research Paper 66. Retrieved 9 March 2016 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32302/12-693-evaluation-fe-teachers-qualifications-regulations.pdf.
  13. Bowl, M. (2014). Adult education in changing times: Policies, philosophies and professionalism. Leicester: NIACE.Google Scholar
  14. CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) (2010). The development of national qualifications frameworks in Europe. Working paper No. 8. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  15. Cervero, R. M. (1989). Becoming more effective in everyday practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 1989(44), 107–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chand, P. (2007). Status of adult literacy: A data base for literacy. New Delhi: National Literacy Mission. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://lccn.loc.gov/2008419372.
  17. Council of the European Union (2011). Council Resolution on a renewed European agenda for adult learning. C 372/1. Official Journal of the European Union, 20 December. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2011:372:0001:0006:EN:PDF.
  18. Desai, V. S. (2012). Importance of literacy in India’s economic growth. International Journal of Economic Research, 3(2), 112–124.Google Scholar
  19. DGfE (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft) (2008). Kerncurriculum Erziehungswissenschaft. Empfehlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft [Core curriculum education. Recommendations of the German society for education]. Opladen: Barbara BudrichGoogle Scholar
  20. Dhéret, A., Nicoli, F., Pascouau, Y., & Zuleeg, F. (2013). Making progress towards the completion of the Single European Labour Market. EPC issue paper no.75. Brussels: European Policy Centre (EPC). Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://www.epc.eu/documents/uploads/pub_3529_single_european_labour_market.pdf.
  21. Doyle, L. (2013). The fragility of professionalism in the de-regulated environment. ASEM Education and Research Hub for Lifelong Learning. Policy Brief. Aarhus: ASEM LLL Hub. Retrieved 9 November 2015 from http://asemlllhub.org/policy-briefs/united-kingdom-lingfield-report/.
  22. E&Y & FICCI (Ernst & Young and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry) (2012). Knowledge paper on skill development. Learner first. Ernst & Young and FICCCI report, September. Kolkata: Ernst & Young Pvt. Retrieved 19 April 2015 from http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/FICCI_skill_report_2012_finalversion/$FILE/FICCI_skill_report_2012_finalversion_low_resolution.pdf.
  23. EC (European Commission) (2006). Adult learning: It is never too late to learn. Communication from the Commission. COM(2006) 614 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. Retrieved 9 March 2016 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52006DC0614&from=EN.
  24. EC (2007). Action Plan on Adult learning. It is always a good time to learn. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM(2007) 558 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. Retrieved 9 March 2016 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52007DC0558&from=ENf.
  25. Education and Training Foundation (2015). Our priorities [webpage]. London: Education and Training Foundation. Retrieved 9 November 2015 from http://www.et-foundation.co.uk/?s=priorities.
  26. Egetenmeyer, R. (2014). In focus: Internationally-comparative research in adult education/further education–between educational policy governance and disciplinary configuration. Zeitschrift für Weiterbildungsforschung, 2(37), 15–28.Google Scholar
  27. Egetenmeyer, R., & Schüßler, I. (2014). Professionalisierungsansätze in der Erwachsenenbildung in Europa: Bildungspolitische, professionalitätsbezogene und forschungsorientierte Perspektiven [Approaches towards professionalisation in adult education in Europe: Perspectives on educational policies, professionalisation and research]. Der pädagogische Blick. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Praxis in pädagogischen Berufen, 3(22), 162–178.Google Scholar
  28. EP (European Parliament) (2005). Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications. Official Journal of the European Union, 30 September. Retrieved 10 March 2016 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32005L0036&from=EN.
  29. Eraut, M. (1994). Developing professional knowledge and competence. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  30. EU (European Union) (2007). Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon, 13 December 2007. 2007/C 306/01. Official Journal of the European Union, 17 December. Retrieved 10 March 2016 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=OJ:C:2007:306:FULL&from=EN.
  31. Evans, L. (2008). Professionalism, professionality and the development of education professionals. British Journal of Educational Studies, 56(1), 20–38. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://hpp.education.leeds.ac.uk/files/2013/11/HPP2015-2-Evans.pdf.
  32. Evetts, J. (2012). Professionalism in turbulent times: Changes, challenges and opportunities. Paper presented at the Propel International Conference Stirling 9–11 May. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://www.propel.stir.ac.uk/downloads/JuliaEvetts-FullPaper.pdf.
  33. Exley, S., & Ball, S. (2011). Something old, something new: Understanding conservative education policy. In H. Bochel (Ed.), The conservative party and social policy (pp. 97–117). Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. France, A. (2016). Understanding youth in the global economic crisis. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  35. Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism: The third logic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  36. Gallacher, J. (2009). Inquiry into the future for lifelong learning: The Scottish perspective. Leicester: NIACE. Retrieved 18 December 2015 from http://www.niace.org.uk/lifelonglearninginquiry/docs/ifll-scottish-perspective.pdf.
  37. Ghatate, V. N. (2013). IndiaIndia: Economic empowerment project for women (SEWA): P121475. Implementation status results report: Sequence 03. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved 9 November 2015 from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/09/18216899/india-india-economic-empowerment-project-women-sewa-p121475-implementation-status-results-report-sequence-03
  38. Gieseke, W. (Ed.). (2000). Programmplanung als Bildungsmanagement: Qualitative Studie in Perspektivverschränkung [Programme planning as educational management: A qualitative study of perspective interconnection]. Recklinghausen: Bitter.Google Scholar
  39. Gieseke, W. (2008). Bedarfsorientierte Angebotsplanung in der Erwachsenenbildung [Needs-based planning of course offers in adult education]., Studientexte für Erwachsenenbildung (series) Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann.Google Scholar
  40. GoI (Govermnent of India) (1956). The University Grants Commission Act. New Delhi: Government of India. Retrieved 30 March 2016 from https://indiankanoon.org/doc/535576/.
  41. Hillier, Y., & Appleby, Y. (2012). Supporting professionalism: See-saw politics and the paradox of deregulation. Adults Learning, 24(2), 8–12.Google Scholar
  42. Hoyle, E., & John, P. (1995). Professional knowledge and professional practice. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  43. Huber, A. (2004). Berufskarrieren im Kohortenvergleich. Diplom-PädagogInnen drei, zehn und zwanzig Jahre nach dem Examen [Professional careers compared by cohort: Qualified eduators three, ten and twenty years after graduation]. In H. H. Krüger & Th. Rauschenbach (Eds.), Pädagogen in Studium und Beruf. Empirische Bilanzen und Zukunftsperspektiven [Studying and working educators: Empirical balances and future prospects] (pp. 175–202). Wiesbaden: V.S. Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  44. Hughes, D. (2011). So, what will the new NIACE look like, then? [blog post 29 November]. Leicester: Learning and Work Institute. Retrieved 18 December 2015 from http://www.niace.org.uk/our-thinking/blog/“so-what-will-new-niace-look-then”.
  45. IIALE (International Institute of Adult and Lifelong Education) (2014). Background [webtext]. New Delhi. Retrieved 18 December 2015 from http://www.iiale.org/background.html.
  46. Jarvis, P. (2009). The Routledge international handbook of lifelong learning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. John, N. (2011). Skills development: Sector profile. New Delhi: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). Retrieved 9 November 2015 from http://www.ficci.com/sector/74/Project_docs/SectorProfile.pdf.
  48. Jones, B. (2007). Personal Communication with Bill Jones, Development Officer, NIACE, September 2007. In M. Osborne & K. Sankey (2009). Non-vocational adult education and its professionals in the United Kingdom. European Journal of Education, 44(2), 271–289.Google Scholar
  49. Karlekar, M. (2004). Paradigms of learning: The total literacy campaign in India. New Delhi: Sage publications.Google Scholar
  50. Kraft, S., Seitter, W., & Kollewe, L. (2009). Professionalitätsentwicklung des Weiterbildungspersonals [Professional development of further education personnel]. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://www.die-bonn.de/id/4200.
  51. Liveright, A. A. (1958). Growing pains in adult education: Evolving directions and perplexing problems in professionalization of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 8(2), 67–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mathur, R. S., & Subramanyam, S. V. S. (1985). Issues and approaches in the training of adult education functionaries: A synthesis of findings from evaluation report—evaluation monograph. New Delhi: Directorate of Adult Education.Google Scholar
  53. Merton, A. (2009). Personal Communication with Annie Merton, Senior Development Officer, NIACE. In M. Osborne & K. Sankey (Eds.), Non-vocational adult education and its professionals in the United Kingdom. European Journal of Education, 44(2), 271–289.Google Scholar
  54. NIACE (National Institute of Adult Continuing Education) (2014) European agenda for adult learning (201214). Leicester: Learning and Work Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2016 from http://www.niace.org.uk/sites/default/files/resources/EU%20Agenda%20for%20Adult%20Learning%20-%20Final%20Report%202012-14.pdf.
  55. NIACE (2015a). Who we work with [webpage]. Leicester: NIACE. Retrieved 19 December 2015 from http://www.niace.org.uk/what-we-do/who-we-work-with.
  56. NIACE (2015b). Making migration work: Labour market and skills solutions. Policy Solutions Number 2, March. Leicester: NIACE. Retrieved 6 November 2015 from https://www.niace.org.uk/sites/default/files/resources/Making%20Migration%20Work%20-%20Labour%20market%20and%20skills%20solutions.pdf.
  57. Nuissl, E. (2008). 50 Jahre für die Erwachsenenbildung. Das DIE—Werden und Wirken eines wissenschaftlichen Service-Instituts. Bielefeld: Bertelsmann.Google Scholar
  58. Nuissl, E. (2010). Profession and professional work in adult education in Europe. Studi sulla Formazione, 12(1/2), 127–132.Google Scholar
  59. Nuissl, E., & Lattke, S. (Eds.). (2008). Qualifying adult learning professionals in Europe. Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann.Google Scholar
  60. Nuissl, E., & von Rein, A. (1995a). Corporate identity. Studientexte für Erwachsenenbildung [Corporate identity. Study texts for adult education series]. Frankfurt/Main: Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung.Google Scholar
  61. Nuissl, E., & von Rein, A. (1995b). Öffentlichkeitsarbeit von Weiterbildungseinrichtungen. Studientexte für Erwachsenenbildung [Public relations of institutions for further education. Study texts for adult education series]. Frankfurt/Main: Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung.Google Scholar
  62. Oevermann, U. (1996). Theoretische Skizze einer revidierten Theorie professionalisierten Handelns [Theoretical sketch of a revised theory of professionalised action]. In A. Combe & W. Helsper (Eds.), Pädagogische Professionalität. Untersuchungen zum Typus pädagogischen Handelns [Educational professionalism: Research on types of educational action] (pp. 70–182). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  63. Osborne, M., & Sankey, K. (2009). Non-vocational adult education and its professionals in the United Kingdom. European Journal of Education, 44(2), 271–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Patel, I. (2009). Policy on adult and lifelong learning: International and national perspectives. In Participatory Lifelong Learning and Information and Communication Technologies (PALDIN), Course 1 (Unit 2, pp. 21–30). New Delhi: Group of Adult Education, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) and Aladin-India. Retrieved 8 November 2015 from http://www.unesco.org/education/aladin/paldin/pdf/course01/unit_02.pdf.
  65. Peters, R. (1997). Erwachsenenbildungs-Professionalität. Ansprüche und Realitäten [Professionalism in adult education: Aspirations and realities]. Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann.Google Scholar
  66. Planning Commission. (2011). Faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth: An approach to the 12th Five Year Plan. New Delhi: Planning Commission, Government of India.Google Scholar
  67. Ravi, S. (2011). A comprehensive study of education. New Delhi: PHI Publications.Google Scholar
  68. Research voor Beleid (Ed.) (2008). ALPINEAdult Learning Professionals in Europe: A study of the current situation, trends and issues. Final Report. Zoetemeer: Research voor Beleid. Retrieved 6 November 2015 from http://www.ginconet.eu/sites/default/files/library/ALPINE.pdf.
  69. Research voor Beleid (Ed.) (2010). Key competences for adult learning professionals: Contribution to the development of a reference framework of key competences for adult learning professionals. Final report Zoetermeer: Research voor Beleid. Retrieved 6 November 2015 from http://www.frae.is/files/Kennarafærni%202010_1168938254.pdf.
  70. Schöll, I. (1996). Weiterbildungsmarketing [Marketing in continuing education]. Frankfurt/Main: Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung.Google Scholar
  71. Schulenberg, W. (1972). Zur Professionalisierung der Erwachsenenbildung [On professionalisation of adult education]. Braunschweig: Westermann.Google Scholar
  72. Shah, S. Y. (Ed.). (1999). An encyclopaedia of Indian adult education. New Delhi: National Literacy Mission, Government of India.Google Scholar
  73. Shah, S.Y. (2009). Mapping the field of training adult and lifelong learning in India. Paper presented during a DIE conference entitled “Teachers and trainers in adult education and lifelong learning: Professional development in Asia and Europe”, held 29–30 June in Bergisch Gladbach. Retrieved 9 November 2015 from https://www.die-bonn.de/asem/asem0921.pdf
  74. Singai, C. B. (2015). Extension as third mission in India: An “extended function” of the University. Paper presented at the “National seminar on social responsibility of the higher education institutions: Status, problems and strategies” held 3–4 July. Tirupati: Sri.Venkateshwara University, Department of Continuing and Adult Education.Google Scholar
  75. Strauch, A., Radtke, M., & Lupou, R. (Eds.). (2011). Flexible pathways towards professionalization: Senior adult educators in Europe. Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann.Google Scholar
  76. Tietgens, H. (1964): Warum kommen wenig Industriearbeiter in die Volkshochschule? [Why do only few industrial workers attend courses in (German) adult education centres?] Reprinted 1987 in W. Schulenberg (Ed.), Erwachsenenbildung [Adult education] (pp. 98–174). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  77. Tight, M. (2002). Key concepts in adult education and training. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. UCU (University and College Union (2011). Institute for Learning. Retrieved 18 November 2015 from http://www.ucu.org.uk/index.cfm?articleid=5412.
  79. UCU (2015). ACE update The Newsletter for Adult and Community Education, Summer issue [online newsletter]. London: University and College Union. Retrieved 7 November 2015 from http://www.ucu.org.uk/media/pdf/2/8/ucu_acenewsletter_summer15.pdf.
  80. Van der Krogt, T. (2007). Towards a new professional autonomy in the public sector: A pledge for re-professionalization on a collective level. In Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the European Group for Public Administration (EGPA), Madrid, 19–21 September.Google Scholar
  81. Welsh Government (2010). Delivering skills that work for Wales: A labour market Framework. Cardiff: Welsh Government. Retrieved 17 December 2015 from http://gov.wales/topics/educationandskills/publications/guidance/labourmarketframework/?lang=en
  82. Whitty, G. (2008). Changing modes of teacher professionalism. In B. Cunningham (Ed.), Exploring professionalism (pp. 28–49). London: Institute of Education, University of London.Google Scholar
  83. Zia, B. (2010). The fad of financial literacy? [Blog post, 8 December]. On All about finance. A blog by Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, Director of Research, World Bank. Retrieved 9 November 2015 from http://blogs.worldbank.org/allaboutfinance/the-fad-of-financial-literacy.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lesley Doyle
    • 1
  • Regina Egetenmeyer
    • 2
  • Chetan Singai
    • 3
  • Uma Devi
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Education, College of Social Sciences,University of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Fakultät für Humanwissenschaften, Institut für PädagogikJulius-Maximilians-UniversitätWürzburgGermany
  3. 3.EDGE and National Institute of Advanced StudiesIndian Institute of Science CampusBengaluruIndia
  4. 4.Women’s Studies CentreSri Padmavati Women’s UniversityTirupatiIndia

Personalised recommendations