Advertisement

International Review of Education

, Volume 51, Issue 5–6, pp 499–516 | Cite as

Increasing Access and Participation of Pastoralist Communities in Primary Education in Kenya

  • Daniel N. Sifuna
Article

Abstract

This study shows how the provision of educational facilities in Kenya since the colonial era has been skewed in favour of densely populated agricultural communities. It analyses interventions to redress the resultant imbalances, such as the school-fees waiver, free primary education, the construction of boarding schools, and school feeding programmes. These measures are shown to have had little impact on increasing access and participation of pastoralist communities in primary education; for they have usually been introduced without serious consideration of the prevailing socio-economic conditions. It is proposed here that for their future development, the government needs to articulate clearer policies and involve such communities in planning as well as incorporate elements of their existing traditional education institutions.

Keywords

Education Institution Analyse Intervention Primary Education Traditional Education Ella 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Zusammenfassung

DER ANSTEIGENDE ZUGANG UND TEILNAHME VON HIRTENGEMEINSCHAFTEN AN GRUNDSCHULBILDUNG IN KENIA – Diese Studie zeigt, wie die Ausstattung mit Bildungseinrichtungen in Kenia seit der Kolonialzeit zugunsten dicht besiedelter landwirtschaftlich geprägter Gemeinschaften verzerrt worden ist. Sie analysiert Interventionen, welche den daraus resultierenden Unausgeglichenheiten abhelfen sollten, wie z. B. den Verzicht auf Schulgeld, freie Grundschulbildung, den Aufbau von Internaten und Schulspeisungsprogramme. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese Mittel nur wenig Einfluss darauf hatten, den Zugang und die Teilnahme von Hirtengemeinschaften an Grundschulbildung zu steigern, da sie üblicherweise ohne ernsthafte Berücksichtigung der vorherrschenden sozio-ökonomischen Bedingungen eingeführt worden sind. Es wird hier vorgeschlagen, dass die Regierung für deren weitere Entwicklung klarere politische Ziele artikulieren und sowohl derartige Gemeinschaften in die Planung einbinden als auch Elemente ihrer bestehenden traditionellen Bildungseinrichtungen aufnehmen muss.

Résumé

ACCÈS ET PARTICIPATION EN AUGMENTATION DES COMMUNAUTÉS PASTORALISTES DANS L’ÉDUCATION PRIMAIRE AU KENYA – Cette étude montre comment la disposition des aménagements éducatifs au Kenya depuis le début de l’ère coloniale a été faussée en faveur des communautés agricoles à forte densité. Elle fait l’analyse des interventions visant à corriger les déséquilibres qui en résultent, tel que la renonciation aux droits d’inscription, l’éducation primaire gratuite, la construction de pensionnats, et les programmes d’alimentation des écoles. On voit que ces mesures n’ont eu qu’un faible impact sur l’augmentation de l’accès et sur la participation des communautés pastoralistes à l’éducation primaire, dans la mesure où elles ont généralement été introduites sans qu’aient été sérieusement prises en considération les conditions socio-économiques prédominantes. On propose ici que, pour le développement futur de ces mesures, le gouvernement doive articuler des politiques plus claires et inclure de telles communautés dans l’organisation aussi bien qu’incorporer les éléments de leurs institutions traditionnelles d’éducation déjà existantes.

Resumen

ACCESO CRECIENTE A LA EDUCACIÓN PRIMARIA Y PARTICIPACIÓN CRECIENTE EN ELLA DE COMUNIDADES PASTORALES EN KENIA–Este estudio muestra cómo desde la era colonial, la provisión de ofertas educativas en Kenia ha ido favoreciendo a las comunidades agrícolas densamente pobladas. Analiza las intervenciones que se han hecho para eliminar los desequilibrios resultantes, tales como la derogación de tasas escolares, la educación primaria libre, la construcción de internados y los programas de alimentación escolar. Estas medidas han mostrado poca eficacia en cuanto al incremento del acceso a la educación primaria y de la participación en ella de las comunidades pastorales, puesto que se han implantado sin tener en cuenta verdaderamente las condiciones socioeconómicas reinantes. Aquí, el autor propone que para el futuro, el gobierno debe presentar políticas más claras e involucrar a estas comunidades en los proyectos e incorporar elementos de sus instituciones educativas tradicionales.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abagi, Okwach 1997The Impact of Politicised Education Reforms on the Quality of Primary Education: Experience from KenyaWatson, KeithModgil, CeciliaModgil, Sohan eds. Educational Dilemmas: Debate and Diversity, Volume Four, Quality in EducationCassellLondon7587Google Scholar
  2. Galaty, John G 1981Research Priorities and Pastoralist Development: What is to be Done?Galaty, John G.Aronson, DanSalzman, Philip C. eds. The Future of Pastoral PeoplesInternational Development Research CentreOttawa1326Google Scholar
  3. Goldschmidt, Walter 1975A National Livestock Bank: An Institutional Device for Rationalising the Economy of Tribal PastoralistsInternational Development Review1726Google Scholar
  4. Gorham, Alex B 1980Education and Social Change in a Pastoral Society: Government Initiatives and Local Responses to Primary School Provision in MaasailandInstitute of International Education, University of StockholmStockholmGoogle Scholar
  5. Government of Kenya and UNICEF1992Children and Women in Kenya: A Situation Analysis 1992UNICEF Kenya Country OfficeNairobiGoogle Scholar
  6. Kenya African National Union [KANU]1969Election ManifestoKANUNairobiGoogle Scholar
  7. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Kenya) [MoEST]2003Free Primary Education: Every Child in SchoolMoESTNairobiGoogle Scholar
  8. National Council of NGOs1997Position Paper of the Voluntary on the Government of Kenya, Education and Training Master Plan, 1997–2010ActionAid KenyaNairobiGoogle Scholar
  9. Ngome, Charles K. 2002. The Impact of the School Feeding Programme on the School Participation Rates of Primary Pupils in Kajiado District, Kenya. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Kenyatta University.Google Scholar
  10. Nkinyangi, John A 1981Education for Nomadic Pastoralists: Development Planning by Trial and ErrorGalaty, John G.Aronson, DanSalzman, Philip C. eds. The Future of Pastoral PeoplesInternational Development Research CentreOttawa183196Google Scholar
  11. Ogachi, Ibrahim O. 2002. Community Financing of Primary Schooling and its Implications on Quality: Case Studies from Kajiado and Kisii Districts. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Kenyatta University.Google Scholar
  12. Okore, George M. 1981. A Survey of the Hidden Costs of Standard Eight Education to the Parents of Yala Division, Siaya District. Unpublished M.Ed. thesis, Kenyatta University.Google Scholar
  13. Republic of Kenya1964Education Commission Report (Ominde) of 1964Government PrinterNairobiGoogle Scholar
  14. Republic of Kenya1974Development Plan 1974–1978Government PrinterNairobiGoogle Scholar
  15. Republic of Kenya2004Economic Survey, 2004Government PrinterNairobiGoogle Scholar
  16. Republic of Kenya1978Educational TrendsUNICEF Kenya Country OfficeNairobiGoogle Scholar
  17. Schneider,  Harold K 1979Livestock and Equality in East Africa: The Economic Basis for Social StructureIndiana University PressBloomington, IAGoogle Scholar
  18. Sifuna, Daniel N 2003The Pastoralist Communities and Free Primary Education in Kenya: A Preliminary Survey. A Study presented to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and ActionAid KenyaMoEST and ActionAid KenyaNairobiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Daniel N. SifunaNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations