Advertisement

International Review of Education

, Volume 52, Issue 1–2, pp 49–65 | Cite as

“If only my eyes were different”: The loss of identity and the under-utilization of black children’s educational potential — rethinking social justice and assimilation

  • Kassie Freeman
Article

Abstract

This study explores how social identity is formed in the United States of America. In particular, it examines the social, economic and educational problems experienced by underachieving Black American children and issues of social inequality along with their implications for social justice. Against the background of matters of group identity and its maintenance or loss, the author reflects on the under-utilization of Black American children’s educational and human potential. She also suggests a rationale for re-conceiving the goal of social justice and how it is to be achieved, as well as the paradigm of cultural assimilation.

„Wenn doch meine augen andere wären“: der verlust von identität und die mangelnde nutzbarmachung des bildungspotentials schwarzer kinder — eine revision der sozialen gerechtigkeit und assimilation

Zusammenfassung

Diese Untersuchung erforscht, wie sich soziale IdentitÄt in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika bildet. Im Besonderen werden die sozialen, ökonomischen und pÄdagogischen Probleme untersucht, die von leistungsschwachen schwarzen amerikanischen Kindern erfahren werden, sowie die Probleme sozialer Ungleichheit in Verbindung mit ihren Implikationen für die soziale Gerechtigkeit. Vor dem Hintergrund der Dynamik von GuppenidentitÄt sowie deren Erhaltung oder Verlust reflektiert die Autorin über die mangelnde Nutzbarmachung des Bildungs- und des menschlichen Potentials schwarzer amerikanischer Kinder. Sie entwickelt auch VorschlÄge, wie die soziale Gerechtigkeit wieder als eine Zielvorstellung zu errichten und wie diese zu verwirklichen ist, ebenso wie das Paradigma der kulturellen Assimilation.

«Si seulement mes yeux étaient différents » : la perte d’identité et la sous-utilisation du potentiel éducatif des enfants noirs : Repenser la justice sociale et l’assimilation

Resume

Cette étude explore comment l’identité sociale est constituée aux états-Unis d’Amérique. En particulier, elle examine les problémes sociaux, économiques et éducatifs vécus par les enfants noirs-américains aux acquis insuffisants, et les questions de l’inégalité sociale en mÊme temps que leurs implications pour la justice sociale. Sur l’arriére-plan des questions de l’identité de groupe et de son maintien ou de sa perte, l’auteur réfléchit sur la sous-utilisation du potentiel humain et éducatif des enfants noirsaméricains. Elle suggére également une analyse raisonnée pour reconcevoir la finalité de la justice sociale et sa réalisation, aussi bien que le paradigme de l’assimilation culturelle.

“Si tan Sólo mis ojos fuesen diferentes”: la pérdida de identidad y el desaprovechamiento del potencial de educación de niños de raza negra — reconsideración de la justicia social y de la integración

Resumen

Este trabajo investiga cómo se forma la identidad social en los Estados Unidos de América. En particular, examina los problemas sociales, económicos y educativos que tienen los niños norteamericanos de raza negra que no alcanzan los objetivos de aprendizaje, y temas de desigualdad social y sus implicaciones en cuanto a la justicia social. Ante el trasfondo de la identidad de grupos y conservación o pérdida de la misma, la autora reflexiona sobre el desaprovechamiento del potencial educativo y humano de los niños norteamericanos de raza negra proponiendo, además, un fundamento para reconcebir el objetivo de justicia social y cómo lograrlo, al igual que un nuevo modelo de integración cultural.

«ЕслИ Бы У МЕНь БылИ ДР УгИЕ глАжА»: УтРАтА ИДЕНтИЧНОстИ И НЕпОлНОЕ ИспОльжОВ АНИЕ ОБРАжОВАтЕльНО гО пОтЕНцИАлА ЧЕРНОкОж Их ДЕтЕИ — п

РЕжУМЕ

ЕРЕсМОтР с ОцИАльНОИ спРАВЕДлИВОстИ И Асс ИМИльцИИ — В ДАННОМ Ис слЕДОВАНИИ ИжУЧАЕтсь пРОБлЕМА ФОРМИРОВАН Иь сОцИАльНОИ ИДЕНтИ ЧНОстИ В сОЕДИНЕННых штАтАх АМЕРИкИ. В ЧАст НОстИ, жДЕсь РАссМАтР ИВАУтсь сОцИАльНыЕ, ЁкОНОМИЧ ЕскЕ И ОБРАжОВАтЕльНыЕ пР ОБлЕМы, ВОжНИкшИЕсь п ЕРЕД АМЕРИкАНскИМИ ЧЕРНОкОжИМИ ДЕтьМИ, А тАкжЕ пРОБлЕМА сОцИА льНОгО НЕРАВЕНстВА И ЕЕ ВлИьНИЕ НА сОцИАльНУ У спРАВЕДлИВОсть. НА Ф ОНЕ ВОпРОсОВ О гРУппОВОИ ИДЕНтИЧНОстИ И ЕЕ сОхРАНЕНИИ ИлИ Ут РАты, АВтОР стАтьИ РАс сУжДАЕт О НЕпОлНОМ ИспОльжОВАНИИ ОБРАж ОВАтЕльНОгО И ЧЕлОВЕ ЧЕскОгО пОтЕНцИАлА АМЕРИкАН скИх ЧЕРНОкОжИх ДЕтЕИ. АВт ОР тАкжЕ пРЕДлАгАЕт л ОгИЧЕскОЕ ОБОсНОВАНИЕ Дль пЕРЕ сМОтРА цЕлЕИ сОцИАльНОИ спР АВЕДлИВОстИ И спОсОБ ОВ ЕЕ ДОстИжЕНИь, А тАкжЕ пАОАДИгМУ кУль тУРНОИ АссИМИльцИИ.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, Claud. 1994. Black Labor White Wealth: The Search for Power and Economic Justice. Edgewood, MD: Duncan and Duncan.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, James D. 1988. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860—1935. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  3. Banks, James A. 1988. Multiethnic Education. 2nd ’ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  4. Braddock, Jomills, and Robert E. Slavin. 1995. Why Ability Grouping Must End: Achieving Excellence and Equity in American Education. In: Beyond Tracking: Finding Success in Inclusive Schools, ed. by Harbison Pool and Jane A. Page, 7–19. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. Bridges, Len. 1994. Exclusions: How Did We Get Here? In: Outcast England: How Schools Exclude Black Children, ed. by Jenny Bourne, Lee Bridges and Chris Searle, 1–16. London: Institute of Race Relations.Google Scholar
  6. Bowen, Howard. 1977. Investment in Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Carnoy, Martin. 1992. Education and the State: From Adam Smith to Perestroika. In: Emergent Issues in Education, ed. by Robert Amove, Philip Altbach and Gail Kelly, 143–159. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  8. —. 1994. Faded Dreams: The Politics and Economics of Race in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Children’s Defense Fund. 1975. School Suspensions: Are They Helping Children?. Washington, DC: Children’s Defense Fund.Google Scholar
  10. Cicourel, Aaron, and Hugh Mehan. 1985. Universal Development, Stratifying Practices, and Status Attainment. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 4(5): 728–734.Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, John. 1972. Introduction. In: World’s Great Men of Color, ed. by Joel A. Rogers, ix-xvi. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Coleman, James. 1988. Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology 94: 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. —. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  14. The Daily Telegraph. 1999. Working Towards a Solution. The Daily Telegraph May 26: 18.Google Scholar
  15. DiMaggio, Paul, and John Mohr. 1985. Cultural Capital, Educational Attainment, and Marital Selection. American Journal of Sociology 90(6): 1231–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evenson, B. 1998, February 23. Land Crisis Brewing Down Under: A 1996 Court Ruling Means Aboriginals Could Claim 80 per cent of Australia’s Land Mass. The Ottawa Citizen, p. A10.Google Scholar
  17. Farrell, Joseph. 1992. Conceptualizing Education and the Drive for Social Equality. In: Emergent Issues in Education, ed. by Robert Arnove, Philip Altbach and Gail Kelly, 107–122. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  18. Foster, Michéle. 1997. Black Teachers on Teaching. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  19. Franklin, John, and Alfred Moss. 1988. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  20. Freeman, Kassie. 1999. My Soul is Missing: African American Students’ Perceptions of the Curriculum and the Influence on College Choice. Review of African American Education 1(1): 31–43.Google Scholar
  21. —. 1997. Increasing African Americans’ Participation in Higher Education: African American High School Students’ Perspective. The Journal of Higher Education 68(5): 523–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. —, et al. 1999. Economic Development and the Utilization of Human Potential- Bridging the Gap Between Higher Education, Economics, and Culture. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, Department of Leadership and Organizations.Google Scholar
  23. Fryer, Peter. 1992. Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain, 6th ed. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hearn, James. 1991. Academic and Nonacademic Influences on the College Destina- tions of 1980 High School Graduates. Sociology of Education 64: 158–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hollins, Etta R. 1996. Culture in School: Revealing the Deeper Meaning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  26. Hossler, Don, and Karen Gallagher. 1987. Studying Student College Choice: A Three- Phase Model and The Implications for Policymakers. College and University 62(3): 207- 221.Google Scholar
  27. Irvine, Jacqueline. 1990. Black Students and School Failure: Policies, Practices, and Prescriptions. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  28. Johns, Roe, and Edgar Morphet. 1983. The Economics and Financing Of Education, 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  29. Ka, Fernando. 1998. Black People’s Situation in Portugal. Paper prepared for Fisk University Race Relations Institute Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, 5–8 July.Google Scholar
  30. King, J. E. 1995. Culture-Centered Knowledge: Black Studies, Curriculum Transfor- mation, and Social Action. In: Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, ed. by James Banks and Cherry Banks. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Kogbara, Donu. A Sense of Elsewhere. Mail on Sunday August: 58–59.Google Scholar
  32. Ladson-Billings, Gloria. 1994. The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Levin, Henry. 2004. Personal communication with the author.Google Scholar
  34. Levitan, Sar, Garth Mangum, and Ray Marshall. 1972. Human Resources and Labor Markets: Labor and Manpower in the American Economy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  35. Lorde, Audrey. 1992. Foreword to the English Language Edition. In: Showing Our Colours: Afro-German Women Speak Out, ed. by May Opitzsto and Catherina Oguntoye, xi-xviii. London: Open Letters.Google Scholar
  36. Mankiller, Wilma. 1993. Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  37. Merisotis, Jamie P. 1998. Who Benefits from Education? An American Perspective. International Higher Education 1-2. Chestnut Hill, MA: Department of Higher Education, Boston College.Google Scholar
  38. Morris, John, and Ellen Goldring. 1999. Are Magnet Schools More Equitable? An Analysis of the Disciplinary Rates of African American and White Students in Cincinnati Magnet and Nonmagnet Schools. Equity and Excellence in Education 32(3): 59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Morrison, Toni. 1970. The Bluest Eye. New York: Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  40. Oakes, Jeannie. 1985. Keeping Track. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Opitzsto, May, and Catherina Oguntoye (eds.). 1992. Showing Our Colours: Afro-German Women Speak out. London: Open Letters.Google Scholar
  42. Pool, Harbison, and Jane Page. 1995. Tracking and its Effects on African-Americans in the Field of Education. In: Beyond Tracking: Finding Success in Inclusive Schools, ed. by Harbison Pool and Jane Page, 71–77. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.Google Scholar
  43. Pilkington, Doris. 1996. Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence. Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  44. Saunders, A. C. de C. M. 1982. A History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Schultz, Theodore W. 1961. Investment in Human Capital. American Economic Review 51: 1–17.Google Scholar
  46. Searle, Chris. 1994. The Culture of Exclusion. In: Outcast England: How Schools Exclude Black Children, ed. by Jenny Bourne, Lee Bridges and Chris Searle, 17–28. London: Institute of Race Relations.Google Scholar
  47. Steele, Claude M. 1999. Thin Ice: “Stereotype Threat≓ and Black College Students. The Atlantic Monthly 284(2): 44–58.Google Scholar
  48. Thurow, Lester. 1972. Education and Economic Equality. Public Interest 28: 66–81.Google Scholar
  49. The Economist. 1999. Tony Blair’s War on Poverty. The Economist 352(8138): 18–19.Google Scholar
  50. United States Department of Labor. 1999. Labor Day 1999 Executive Summary. Future Work: Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st century. Washington, DC: Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  51. Walker, Vanessa. 1996. Their Highest Potential: An African American School Commu- nity in the Segregated South. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  52. Wheelock, Anne. 1992. Crossing the Tracks: How “Untracking≓ Can Save America’s Schools. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kassie Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Bowdoin CollegeBrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations