Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB): opportunities and applications—a review

review paper
  • 244 Downloads

Abstract

Recently, partial nitrification has been adopted widely as a first step of both nitrite shunt and deammonification processes towards efficient and economical nitrogen removal from wastewater. Effective partial nitrification relies on stimulating the first step of nitrification while inhibiting the second step and by consequence accumulating ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Successful AOB accumulation depends upon the knowledge of their microbial characteristics and kinetics parameters as well as the main parameters that can selectively inhibits NOBs’ growth or allow AOBs to outcompete them. Several bioreactors configurations either in suspended or attached growth have been used towards achieving partial nitrification using different inhibition conditions. This review aims to illustrate an up to date version of the metabolism and factors affecting AOB growth and summarize the current bioreactors configurations in all lab-scale and full-scale applications for AOB. Moreover, successful partial nitrification attempts in the literature in suspended and attached growth systems have been complied. Additionally, the possibility of improving the current applications of AOB and the integration into the operation of existing WWTPs in order to transform into water resources recovery facility has been presented.

Keywords

Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Partial nitrification Anammox Full scale Attached growth Kinetics 

References

  1. Abeling U, Seyfried CF (1992) Anaerobic–aerobic treatment of high-strength ammonium wastewater-nitrogen removal via nitrite. Water Sci Technol 26:1007–1015Google Scholar
  2. Abma WR, Schultz CE, Mulder JW, van der Star WRL, Strous M, Tokutomi T, van Loosdrecht MCM (2007) Full-scale granular sludge Anammox process. Water Sci Technol 55:27.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahn JH, Yu R, Chandran K (2008) Distinctive microbial ecology and biokinetics of autotrophic ammonia and nitrite oxidation in a partial nitrification bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 100:1078–1087.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.21863 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alleman JE (1985) Elevated nitrite occurrence in biological wastewater treatment systems. Water Sci Technol 17:409–419Google Scholar
  5. Anthonisen AC, Loehr RC, Prakasam TBS, Srinath EG (1976) Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous acid. J Water Pollut Control Fed 48:835–852Google Scholar
  6. Aoi Y, Miyoshi T, Okamoto T, Tsuneda S, Hirata A, Kitayama A, Nagamune T (2000) Microbial ecology of nitrifying bacteria in wastewater treatment process examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. J Biosci Bioeng 90:234–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(00)80075-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arp D, Sayavedra-Soto L, Hommes N (2002) Molecular biology and biochemistry of ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea. Arch Microbiol 178:250–255.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-002-0452-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bae W, Baek S, Chung J, Lee Y (2001) Optimal operational factors for nitrite accumulation in batch reactors. Biodegradation 12:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagchi S, Biswas R, Roychoudhury K, Nandy T (2009) Stable partial nitrification in an up-flow fixed-bed bioreactor under an oxygen-limiting environment. Environ Eng Sci 26:1309–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Balmelle B, Nguyen KM, Capdeville B, Cornier JC, Deguin A (1992) Study of factors controlling nitrite build-up in biological processes for water nitrification. Water Sci Technol 26:1017–1025Google Scholar
  11. Beccari M, Passino R, Ramadori R, Tandoi V (1983) Kinetics of dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction in suspended growth culture. J Water Pollut Control Fed 55:58–64Google Scholar
  12. Blackburne R, Vadivelu VM, Yuan Z, Keller J (2007) Determination of growth rate and yield of nitrifying bacteria by measuring carbon dioxide uptake rate. Water Environ Res 79:2437–2445.  https://doi.org/10.2175/106143007X212139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bock E, Koops H-P, Harms H (1986) Cell biology of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrification https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10020227672/en/
  14. Boonaert CJ-P, Dupont-Gillain CC, Dengis PB, Dufrêne YF, Rouxhet PG (2002) Cell separation, flocculation. Encyclopedia of bioprocess technology. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bougard D, Bernet N, Chèneby D, Delgenès J-P (2006) Nitrification of a high-strength wastewater in an inverse turbulent bed reactor: effect of temperature on nitrite accumulation. Process Biochem 41:106–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.03.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burrell PC, Phalen CM, Hovanec TA (2001) Identification of bacteria responsible for ammonia oxidation in freshwater aquaria. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:5791–5800.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.12.5791-5800.2001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Canziani R, Emondi V, Garavaglia M, Malpei F, Pasinetti E, Buttiglieri G (2006) Effect of oxygen concentration on biological nitrification and microbial kinetics in a cross-flow membrane bioreactor (MBR) and moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) treating old landfill leachate. J Membr Sci 286:202–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2006.09.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carrera J, Jubany I, Carvallo L, Chamy R, Lafuente J (2004) Kinetic models for nitrification inhibition by ammonium and nitrite in a suspended and an immobilised biomass systems. Process Biochem 39:1159–1165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00214-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carvallo L, Carrera J, Chamy R (2002) Nitrifying activity monitoring and kinetic parameters determination in a biofilm airlift reactor by respirometry. Biotechnol Lett 24:2063–2066.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021375523879 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chandran K, Stein LY, Klotz MG, van Loosdrecht MCM (2011) Nitrous oxide production by lithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and implications for engineered nitrogen-removal systems. Biochem Soc Trans 39:1832–1837.  https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20110717 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chiellini C, Munz G, Petroni G, Lubello C, Mori G, Verni F, Vannini C (2013) Characterization and comparison of bacterial communities selected in conventional activated sludge and membrane bioreactor pilot plants: a focus on nitrospira and planctomycetes bacterial phyla. Curr Microbiol 67:77–90.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-013-0333-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Choi J, Ahn Y (2014) Comparative performance of air-lift partial nitritation processes with attached growth and suspended growth without biomass retention. Environ Technol 35:1328–1337.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.868037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clauwaert P, Roels J, Thoeye C, De G, Van DS (2010) Evaluation of the environmental impact of sewage treatment with nutrient removal by means of life cycle analysis (LCA). WT-Afvalwater 10:186–195Google Scholar
  24. Daalkhaijav U, Nemati M (2014) Ammonia loading rate: an effective variable to control partial nitrification and generate the anaerobic ammonium oxidation influent. Environ Technol 35:523–531.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.796006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daebel H, Manser R, Gujer W (2007) Exploring temporal variations of oxygen saturation constants of nitrifying bacteria. Water Res 41:1094–1102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dan P (2014) Determination of ammonia oxidation bacteria kinetics in partial nitritation process using respirometric method. J Sci Technol 52:3AGoogle Scholar
  27. Dawas-Massalha A, Gur-Reznik S, Lerman S, Sabbah I, Dosoretz CG (2014) Co-metabolic oxidation of pharmaceutical compounds by a nitrifying bacterial enrichment. Bioresour Technol 167:336–342.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Downing LS, Nerenberg R (2008) Effect of oxygen gradients on the activity and microbial community structure of a nitrifying, membrane-aerated biofilm. Biotechnol Bioeng 101:1193–1204.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.22018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Durán U, Val del Río A, Campos JL, Mosquera-Corral A, Méndez R (2014) Enhanced ammonia removal at room temperature by pH controlled partial nitrification and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Environ Technol 35:383–390.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.829110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emmerson RHC, Morse GK, Lester JN, Edge DR (1995) The life-cycle analysis of small-scale sewage-treatment processes. Water Environ J 9:317–325.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-6593.1995.tb00945.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fudala-Ksiazek S, Luczkiewicz A, Fitobor K, Olanczuk-Neyman K (2014) Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:7307–7318.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2641-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gabarró J, Ganigué R, Gich F, Ruscalleda M, Balaguer MD, Colprim J (2012) Effect of temperature on AOB activity of a partial nitritation SBR treating landfill leachate with extremely high nitrogen concentration. Bioresour Technol 126:283–289.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Galí A, Dosta J, Macé S, Mata-Alvarez J (2007a) Comparison of reject water treatment with nitrification/denitrification via nitrite in SBR and SHARON chemostat process. Environ Technol 28:173–176.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332808618777 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Galí A, Dosta J, van Loosdrecht MCM, Mata-Alvarez J (2007b) Two ways to achieve an anammox influent from real reject water treatment at lab-scale: Partial SBR nitrification and SHARON process. Process Biochem 42:715–720.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2006.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ganigué R, López H, Balaguer MD, Colprim J (2007) Partial ammonium oxidation to nitrite of high ammonium content urban landfill leachates. Water Res 41:3317–3326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.04.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gao D, Peng Y, Wu W-M (2010) Kinetic model for biological nitrogen removal using shortcut nitrification–denitrification process in sequencing batch reactor. Environ Sci Technol 44:5015–5021.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es100514x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ge X, Yang L, Sheets JP, Yu Z, Li Y (2014) Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels: Status and opportunities. Biotechnol Adv 32:1460–1475.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ge S, Wang S, Yang X, Qiu S, Li B, Peng Y (2015) Detection of nitrifiers and evaluation of partial nitrification for wastewater treatment: A review. Chemosphere 140:85–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geets J, Boon N, Verstraete W (2006) Strategies of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria for coping with nutrient and oxygen fluctuations: strategies of AOB for coping with nutrient and oxygen fluctuations. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 58:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00170.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glass C, Silverstein J, Oh J (1997) Inhibition of denitrification in activated sludge by nitrite. Water Environ Res 69:1086–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. González-Martínez A, Calderón K, Albuquerque A, Hontoria E, González-López J, Guisado IM, Osorio F (2013) Biological and technical study of a partial-SHARON reactor at laboratory scale: effect of hydraulic retention time. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 36:173–184.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-012-0772-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guisasola A, Jubany I, Baeza JA, Carrera J, Lafuente J (2005) Respirometric estimation of the oxygen affinity constants for biological ammonium and nitrite oxidation. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80:388–396.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guo J-H, Peng Y-Z, Peng C-Y, Wang S-Y, Chen Y, Huang H-J, Sun Z-R (2010) Energy saving achieved by limited filamentous bulking sludge under low dissolved oxygen. Bioresour Technol 101:1120–1126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hanaki K, Wantawin C, Ohgaki S (1990) Nitrification at low levels of dissolved oxygen with and without organic loading in a suspended-growth reactor. Water Res 24:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hauck M, Maalcke-Luesken FA, Jetten MSM, Huijbregts MAJ (2016) Removing nitrogen from wastewater with side stream anammox: what are the trade-offs between environmental impacts? Resour Conserv Recycl 107:212–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. He Y, Tao W, Wang Z, Shayya W (2012) Effects of pH and seasonal temperature variation on simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox in free-water surface wetlands. J Environ Manage 110:103–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Heijnen JJ (1997) Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on nitrite accumulation in a biofilm airlift suspension reactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 53:168–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heijnen JJ, Mulder A, Enger W, Hoeks F (1989) Review on the application of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors in waste-water treatment. Chem Eng J 41:B37–B50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9467(89)80029-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hellinga C, Schellen AAJC, Mulder JW, van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ (1998) The SHARON process: an innovative method for nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich waste water. Water Sci Technol 37:135–142Google Scholar
  50. Hellinga C, van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ (1999) Model based design of a novel process for nitrogen removal from concentrated flows. Math Comput Model Dyn Syst 5:351–371.  https://doi.org/10.1076/mcmd.5.4.351.3678 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hooper AB, Vannelli T, Bergmann DJ, Arciero DM (1997) Enzymology of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite by bacteria. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 71:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hospido A, Moreira MT, Feijoo G (2008) A comparison of municipal wastewater treatment plants for big centres of population in Galicia (Spain). Int J Life Cycle Assess 13:57.  https://doi.org/10.1065/lca2007.03.314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hyman MR, Wood PM (1983) Methane oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea. Biochem J 212:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jaroszynski LW, Oleszkiewicz JA (2011) Autotrophic ammonium removal from reject water: partial nitrification and anammox in one-reactor versus two-reactor systems. Environ Technol 32:289–294.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2010.497500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones RD, Morita RY (1983) Methane oxidation by Nitrosococcus oceanus and Nitrosomonas europaea. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:401–410Google Scholar
  56. Jones RM, Dold PL, Takács I, Chapman K, Wett B, Murthy S, Shaughnessy M (2007) Simulation for operation and control of reject water treatment processes. Proc Water Environ Fed 2007:4357–4372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Joss A, Salzgeber D, Eugster J, König R, Rottermann K, Burger S, Fabijan P, Leumann S, Mohn J, Siegrist H (2009) Full-scale nitrogen removal from digester liquid with partial nitritation and anammox in one SBR [WWW Document]. Environ Sci Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es900107w Google Scholar
  58. Jubany I, Carrera J, Lafuente J, Baeza JA (2008) Start-up of a nitrification system with automatic control to treat highly concentrated ammonium wastewater: experimental results and modeling. Chem Eng J 144:407–419.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2008.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kampschreur MJ, Picioreanu C, Tan N, Kleerebezem R, Jetten MSM, van Loosdrecht MCM (2007) Unraveling the source of nitric oxide emission during nitrification. Proc Water Environ Fed 2007:843–860.  https://doi.org/10.2175/193864707787976470 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Keen GA, Prosser JI (1987) Steady state and transient growth of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria. Arch Microbiol 147:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keener WK, Arp DJ (1994) Transformations of aromatic compounds by Nitrosomonas europaea. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1914–1920Google Scholar
  62. Kim J, Lee B (2011) Effect of temperature on nitrogen removal and microbial community composition in nitrifying biofilm reactors. In: 2011 6th international forum on strategic technology (IFOST). IEEE, pp 476–479Google Scholar
  63. Kim J-H, Guo X, Park H-S (2008) Comparison study of the effects of temperature and free ammonia concentration on nitrification and nitrite accumulation. Process Biochem 43:154–160.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2007.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kishida N, Kim J-H, Chen M, Sasaki H, Sudo R (2003) Effectiveness of oxidation-reduction potential and pH as monitoring and control parameters for nitrogen removal in swine wastewater treatment by sequencing batch reactors. J Biosci Bioeng 96:285–290.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(03)80195-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Koops H-P, Pommerening-Röser A (2001) Distribution and ecophysiology of the nitrifying bacteria emphasizing cultured species. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 37:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kouba V, Vejmelkova D, Proksova E, Wiesinger H, Concha M, Dolejs P, Hejnic J, Jenicek P, Bartacek J (2017) High-rate partial nitritation of municipal wastewater after psychrophilic anaerobic pretreatment. Environ Sci Technol 51:11029–11038.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kowalchuk GA, Stephen JR (2001) Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a model for molecular microbial ecology. Annu Rev Microbiol 55:485–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lackner S, Terada A, Horn H, Henze M, Smets BF (2010) Nitritation performance in membrane-aerated biofilm reactors differs from conventional biofilm systems. Water Res 44:6073–6084.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lackner S, Gilbert EM, Vlaeminck SE, Joss A, Horn H, van Loosdrecht MCM (2014) Full-scale partial nitritation/anammox experiences—an application survey. Water Res 55:292–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Law Y, Ye L, Pan Y, Yuan Z (2012) Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 367:1265–1277.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lebrero R, Arellano-Garcia L, Su Y-C, Chandran K (2016) Metabolism and growth of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria with hydroxylamine as the sole energy and nitrogen source. Proc Water Environ Fed 2016:315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Leyva-Díaz JC, González-Martínez A, González-López J, Muñío MM, Poyatos JM (2015) Kinetic modeling and microbiological study of two-step nitrification in a membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment. Chem Eng J 259:692–702.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.07.136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Li A-J, Li X-Y, Quan X-C, Yang Z-F (2013a) Aerobic sludge granulation for partial nitrification of ammonia-rich inorganic wastewater. Environ Eng Manag J EEMJ 12:1375–1380Google Scholar
  74. Li J, Yu D, Zhang P (2013b) Partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor treating acrylic fiber wastewater. Biodegradation 24:427–435.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-012-9599-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liang Z, Han Z, Yang S, Liang X, Du P, Liu G, Yang Y (2011) A control strategy of partial nitritation in a fixed bed bioflim reactor. Bioresour Technol 102:710–715.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu G, Wang J (2013) Role of solids retention time on complete nitrification: mechanistic understanding and modeling. J Environ Eng 140:48–56.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu J, Tian Y, Wang D, Lu Y, Zhang J, Zuo W (2014) Quantitative analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a combined system of MBR and worm reactors treating synthetic wastewater. Bioresour Technol 174:294–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.09.082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liu X, Kim M, Nakhla G (2016) Operational conditions for successful partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based on process kinetics. Environ Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2016.1209246 Google Scholar
  79. Logemann S, Schantl J, Bijvank S, van Loosdrecht M, Kuenen JG, Jetten M (1998) Molecular microbial diversity in a nitrifying reactor system without sludge retention. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 27:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Magrí A, Corominas L, López H, Campos E, Balaguer M, Colprim J, Flotats X (2007) A model for the simulation of the SHARON process: pH as a key factor. Environ Technol 28:255–265.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332808618791 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Manser R, Gujer W, Siegrist H (2005) Consequences of mass transfer effects on the kinetics of nitrifiers. Water Res 39:4633–4642.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mao N, Ren H, Geng J, Ding L, Xu K (2017) Engineering application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in wastewater treatment. World J Microbiol Biotechnol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-017-2313-7 Google Scholar
  83. Meinhold J, Arnold E, Isaacs S (1999) Effect of nitrite on anoxic phosphate uptake in biological phosphorus removal activated sludge. Water Res 33:1871–1883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Melcer H (2004) Methods for wastewater characterization in activated sludge modelling. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  85. Milia S, Cappai G, Perra M, Carucci A (2012) Biological treatment of nitrogen-rich refinery wastewater by partial nitritation (SHARON) process. Environ Technol 33:1477–1483.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2012.660651 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mishima K, Nakamura M (1991) Self-immobilization of aerobic activated sludge—a pilot study of the aerobic upflow sludge blanket process in municipal sewage treatment. Water Sci Technol 23:981–990Google Scholar
  87. Mohammed RN, Abu-Alhail S, Xi-wu L (2014) Long-term operation of a novel pilot-scale six tanks alternately operating activated sludge process in treating domestic wastewater. Environ Technol 35:1874–1885.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2014.885068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mulder A, Van de Graaf AA, Robertson LA, Kuenen JG (1995) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation discovered in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 16:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mulder JW, Van Loosdrecht MCM, Hellinga C, Van Kempen R (2001) Full-scale application of the SHARON process for treatment of rejection water of digested sludge dewatering. Water Sci Technol 43:127–134Google Scholar
  90. Muñoz-Palazon B, Rodriguez-Sanchez A, Castellano-Hinojosa A, Gonzalez-Lopez J, van Loosdrecth MCM, Vahala R, Gonzalez-Martinez A (2018) Quantitative and qualitative studies of microorganisms involved in full-scale autotrophic nitrogen removal performance. AIChE J 64:457–467.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15925 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Munz G, Mori G, Vannini C, Lubello C (2010) Kinetic parameters and inhibition response of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in membrane bioreactors and conventional activated sludge processes. Environ Technol 31:1557–1564.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593331003793828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nicolella C, Van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ (2000) Wastewater treatment with particulate biofilm reactors. J Biotechnol 80:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nicolella C, van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ (2010) ChemInform abstract: wastewater treatment with particulate biofilm reactors. ChemInform.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.200036299 Google Scholar
  94. Otawa K, Asano R, Ohba Y, Sasaki T, Kawamura E, Koyama F, Nakamura S, Nakai Y (2006) Molecular analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in intermittent aeration sequencing batch reactors used for animal wastewater treatment. Environ Microbiol 8:1985–1996.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01078.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pambrun V, Paul E, Spérandio M (2006) Modeling the partial nitrification in sequencing batch reactor for biomass adapted to high ammonia concentrations. Biotechnol Bioeng 95:120–131.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.21008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peng Y, Zhu G (2006) Biological nitrogen removal with nitrification and denitrification via nitrite pathway. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:15–26.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-006-0534-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pérez J, Costa E, Kreft J-U (2009) Conditions for partial nitrification in biofilm reactors and a kinetic explanation. Biotechnol Bioeng 103:282–295.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.22249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Purkhold U, Pommerening-Röser A, Juretschko S, Schmid MC, Koops H-P, Wagner M (2000) Phylogeny of all recognized species of ammonia oxidizers based on comparative 16S rRNA and amoA sequence analysis: implications for molecular diversity surveys. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:5368–5382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rasche ME, Hicks RE, Hyman MR, Arp DJ (1990) Oxidation of monohalogenated ethanes and n-chlorinated alkanes by whole cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. J Bacteriol 172:5368–5373.  https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.172.9.5368-5373.1990 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rodriguez-Sanchez A, Gonzalez-Martinez A, Martinez-Toledo M, Garcia-Ruiz M, Osorio F, Gonzalez-Lopez J (2014) The effect of influent characteristics and operational conditions over the performance and microbial community structure of partial nitritation reactors. Water 6:1905–1924.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w6071905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Roh H, Subramanya N, Zhao F, Yu C-P, Sandt J, Chu K-H (2009) Biodegradation potential of wastewater micropollutants by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Chemosphere 77:1084–1089.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.08.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rongsayamanont C, Limpiyakorn T, Law B, Khan E (2010) Relationship between respirometric activity and community of entrapped nitrifying bacteria: implications for partial nitrification. Enzyme Microb Technol 46:229–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2009.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rowan AK, Snape JR, Fearnside D, Barer MR, Curtis TP, Head IM (2003) Composition and diversity of ammonia-oxidising bacterial communities in wastewater treatment reactors of different design treating identical wastewater. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 43:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rusten B, Eikebrokk B, Ulgenes Y, Lygren E (2006) Design and operations of the Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactors. Aquac Eng 34:322–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2005.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Saito T, Brdjanovic D, van Loosdrecht MCM (2004) Effect of nitrite on phosphate uptake by phosphate accumulating organisms. Water Res 38:3760–3768.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schaubroeck T, De Clippeleir H, Weissenbacher N, Dewulf J, Boeckx P, Vlaeminck SE, Wett B (2015) Environmental sustainability of an energy self-sufficient sewage treatment plant: improvements through DEMON and co-digestion. Water Res 74:166–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.02.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schmidt I, Sliekers O, Schmid M, Bock E, Fuerst J, Kuenen JG, Jetten MSM, Strous M (2003) New concepts of microbial treatment processes for the nitrogen removal in wastewater. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:481–492.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-6445(03)00039-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schramm A, de Beer D, van den Heuvel JC, Ottengraf S, Amann R (1999) Microscale distribution of populations and activities of Nitrosospira and Nitrospira spp. along a macroscale gradient in a nitrifying bioreactor: quantification by in situ hybridization and the use of microsensors. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:3690–3696Google Scholar
  109. Shen L, Yao Y, Meng F (2014) Reactor performance and microbial ecology of a nitritation membrane bioreactor. J Membr Sci 462:139–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2014.03.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sin G, Kaelin D, Kampschreur MJ, Takács I, Wett B, Gernaey KV, Rieger L, Siegrist H, van Loosdrecht MCM (2008) Modelling nitrite in wastewater treatment systems: a discussion of different modelling concepts. Water Sci Technol 58:1155.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2008.485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sinha B, Annachhatre AP (2007) Partial nitrification—operational parameters and microorganisms involved. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 6:285–313.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-006-9116-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Soliman M, Eldyasti A (2016) Development of partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) using ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) controlled by mixing regime. Bioresour Technol 221:85–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Soliman M, Eldyasti A (2017) Long-term dynamic and pseudo-state modeling of complete partial nitrification process at high nitrogen loading rates in a sequential batch reactor (SBR). Bioresour Technol 233:382–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.02.108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stenstrom MK, Poduska RA (1980) The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on nitrification. Water Res 14:643–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sui Q, Liu C, Dong H, Zhu Z (2014) Effect of ammonium nitrogen concentration on the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in a membrane bioreactor for the treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater. J Biosci Bioeng 118:277–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.02.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Suzuki I, Dular U, Kwok SC (1974) Ammonia or ammonium ion as substrate for oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea cells and extracts. J Bacteriol 120:556–558Google Scholar
  117. Taher E, Chandran K (2013) High-rate, high-yield production of methanol by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Environ Sci Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es3042912 Google Scholar
  118. Tanaka H, Dunn IJ (1982) Kinetics of biofilm nitrification. Biotechnol Bioeng 24:669–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tonkovic Z (1998) Nitrite accumulation at the Mornington sewage treatment plant—causes and significance. In: 19th biennial international conference, water quality international, pp 165–172Google Scholar
  120. Torà JA, Lafuente J, Carrera J, Baeza JA (2012) Fast start-up and controlled operation during a long-term period of a high-rate partial nitrification activated sludge system. Environ Technol 33:1361–1366.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2011.626802 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vadivelu VM, Keller J, Yuan Z (2006a) Stoichiometric and kinetic characterisation of Nitrosomonas sp. in mixed culture by decoupling the growth and energy generation processes. J Biotechnol 126:342–356.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.04.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vadivelu VM, Yuan Z, Fux C, Keller J (2006b) Stoichiometric and kinetic characterisation of Nitrobacter in mixed culture by decoupling the growth and energy generation processes. Biotechnol Bioeng 94:1176–1188.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.20956 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Van Dongen U, Jetten MS, Van Loosdrecht MCM (2001) The SHARON®-Anammox® process for treatment of ammonium rich wastewater. Water Sci Technol 44:153–160Google Scholar
  124. Van Hulle SW, Volcke EI, Teruel JL, Donckels B, van Loosdrecht MC, Vanrolleghem PA (2007) Influence of temperature and pH on the kinetics of the Sharon nitritation process. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:471–480.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1692 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen SJ (1993) Biofilm bioreactors for waste-water treatment. Trends Biotechnol 11:117–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-7799(93)90085-N CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vannecke TPW, Volcke EIP (2015) Modelling microbial competition in nitrifying biofilm reactors. Biotechnol Bioeng 112:2550–2561.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.25680 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Veys P, Vandeweyer H, Audenaert W, Monballiu A, Dejans P, Jooken E, Dumoulin A, Meesschaert BD, Van Hulle SWH (2010) Performance analysis and optimization of autotrophic nitrogen removal in different reactor configurations: a modelling study. Environ Technol 31:1311–1324.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593331003713685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Villaverde S, Garcia-Encina PA, Fdz-Polanco F (1997) Influence of pH over nitrifying biofilm activity in submerged biofilters. Water Res 31:1180–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vlaeminck SE, De Clippeleir H, Verstraete W (2012) Microbial resource management of one-stage partial nitritation/anammox. Microb Biotechnol 5:433–448.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7915.2012.00341.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wan C, Yang X, Lee D-J, Sun S, Liu X, Zhang P (2014) Influence of hydraulic retention time on partial nitrification of continuous-flow aerobic granular-sludge reactor. Environ Technol 35:1760–1765.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2014.881423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wei D, Du B, Xue X, Dai P, Zhang J (2014) Analysis of factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:1863–1870.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-013-5135-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wett B (2006) Solved upscaling problems for implementing deammonification of rejection water. Water Sci Technol 53:121.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2006.413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wett B (2007) Development and implementation of a robust deammonification process. Water Sci Technol 56:81.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.611 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wett B, Rauch W (2003) The role of inorganic carbon limitation in biological nitrogen removal of extremely ammonia concentrated wastewater. Water Res 37:1100–1110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00440-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wett B, Rostek R, Rauch W, Ingerle K (1998) pH-controlled reject-water-treatment. Water Sci Technol 37:165–172Google Scholar
  136. Wett B, Hell M, Nyhuis G, Puempel T, Takacs I, Murthy S (2010) Syntrophy of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidisers. Water Sci Technol 61:1915.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2010.969 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Whittaker M, Bergmann D, Arciero D, Hooper AB (2000) Electron transfer during the oxidation of ammonia by the chemolithotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. Biochim Biophys Acta BBA Bioenerg 1459:346–355.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2728(00)00171-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wiesmann U (1994) Biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. In: Biotechnics/wastewater. Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology, vol 51. Springer, Berlin, pp 113–154.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BFb0008736 Google Scholar
  139. Wyffels S, Boeckx P, Pynaert K, Zhang D, Cleemput OV, Chen G, Verstraete W (2004) Nitrogen removal from sludge reject water by a two-stage oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification denitrification process. Water Sci Technol 49:57–64Google Scholar
  140. Xu Y, Yuan Z, Ni B-J (2016) Biotransformation of pharmaceuticals by ammonia oxidizing bacteria in wastewater treatment processes. Sci Total Environ 566–567:796–805.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yarbrough JM, Rake JB, Eagon RG (1980) Bacterial inhibitory effects of nitrite: inhibition of active transport, but not of group translocation, and of intracellular enzymes. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:831–834Google Scholar
  142. Ye L, Pijuan M, Yuan Z (2010) The effect of free nitrous acid on the anabolic and catabolic processes of glycogen accumulating organisms. Water Res 44:2901–2909.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yoshida Y, Takahashi K, Saito T, Tanaka K (2006) The effect of nitrite on aerobic phosphate uptake and denitrifying activity of phosphate-accumulating organisms. Water Sci Technol 53:21–27.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2006.165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zafarzadeh A, Bina B, Attar HM, Nejad MH (2010) Performance of moving bed biofilm reactors for biological nitrogen compounds removal from wastewater by partial nitrification-denitrification process. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 7:353–364Google Scholar
  145. Zhang D, Zhang D et al (2004) Community analysis of ammonia oxidizer in the oxygen-limited nitritation stage of OLAND system by DGGE of PCR amplified 16S rDNA fragments and FISH. J Environ Sci 16:838–842Google Scholar
  146. Zhang M, Lawlor PG, Hu Z, Zhan X (2013) Nutrient removal from separated pig manure digestate liquid using hybrid biofilters. Environ Technol 34:645–651.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2012.710406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zhou Y, Oehmen A, Lim M, Vadivelu V, Ng W (2011) The role of nitrite and free nitrous acid (FNA) in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 45(15): 4672–4682.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.06.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Lassonde School of EngineeringYork UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations