The use of activated carbon for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous solutions: a review

  • Fatima Mansour
  • Mahmoud Al-Hindi
  • Rim Yahfoufi
  • George M. Ayoub
  • Mohammad N. Ahmad
review paper
  • 172 Downloads

Abstract

The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in surface and ground water is of concern due to the adverse effects they may have on human health, aquatic life, and the environment, emphasizing the importance of their removal from the water compartment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be effective for the removal of several types of inorganic and organic contaminants either as a stand-alone polishing step or in combination with other conventional and advanced water and wastewater treatment systems. This paper discusses the current status of the removal of pharmaceuticals from water using activated carbon derived from numerous precursors, providing an in-depth review of the multitude of factors (adsorbent properties, adsorbate properties, operating conditions) affecting the adsorption process, from the preparation of the activated carbon to its regeneration. A critical assessment of the existing literature is presented, highlighting research and development needs that may ultimately lead to a more comprehensive and sustainable use of activated carbon for the removal of pharmaceuticals from the water environment.

Keywords

Activated carbon Adsorption Pharmaceuticals Regeneration 

List of symbols

\(\alpha\)

Initial adsorption rate constant, mg/g/s

\(\alpha_{BS}\)

Measure of the width of sorption energy distribution in the Brouers Sotolongo model, dimensionless

\(\beta\)

Initial desorption rate constant, g/mg

[ ]

Concentration of pharmaceutical, mol/L

\(a\)

Number of neighboring sites occupied by the adsorbate, dimensionless

\(a_{R}\)

Redlich–Peterson isotherm constant, (L/g)mRP

\(b\)

Temkin adsorption constant, J/mol

\(C\)

Constant related to thickness of boundary layer, mg/g

\(C_{o}\)

Initial concentration of adsorbate, ng, µg or mg/L

\(C_{e}\)

Equilibrium adsorbate concentration, ng, µg or mg/L

\(D\)

Intraparticle diffusion coefficient, cm2/s

\(E\)

Characteristic adsorption energy, kJ/mol

\(G\)

Gibbs free energy, kJ/mol

\(H\)

Enthalpy, kJ/mol

\(k_{1}\)

Pseudo-first order rate constant, s−1

\(k_{2}\)

Pseudo-second order rate constant, g/mg/s

\(k_{2D}\)

Diffusion reaction constant, L/mg/min

\(k_{AV}\)

Fractionary order kinetic constant, h−1

\(k_{global}\)

Global kinetic constant (includes both kinetic constant of reaction in bulk liquid in absence of AC and the reaction occurring on AC surface), min−1

\(k_{N}\)

General order constant rate, min−1 (g/mg)n−1

\(K_{1}\)

Equilibrium constant for first monolayer, L/mg

\(K_{2}\)

Equilibrium constant for second monolayer, L/mg

\(K_{BET}\)

Brunauer–Emmet–Teller adsorption constant, dimensionless

\(K_{BS}\)

Brouers Sotolongo model constant, L/mg

\(K_{e}\)

Elovich equilibrium constant, L/mg

\(K_{F}\)

Freundlich equilibrium constant, mg/g mg−1/nF L1/nF

\(K_{g}\)

Liu equilibrium constant, L/mg

\(K_{id}\)

Intra-particle diffusion rate constant, mg/g h−0.5

\(K_{L}\)

Langmuir equilibrium constant, L/mg

\(K_{LF}\)

Langmuir–Freundlich equilbirum constant for heterogeneous solids, L/mg

\(K_{N}\)

Nitta equilibrium constant, L/mg

\(K_{OW}\)

Water dissociation constant, dimensionless

\(K_{R}\)

Redlich–Peterson isotherm constant, L/g

\(K_{RPI}\)

Radke–Prausnitz equilibrium constant, L/mg

\(K_{s}\)

Sips equilibrium constant, (L/mg)mS

\(K_{T}\)

Toth equilibrium constant, L/mg

\(K_{Tem}\)

Temkin equilibrium constant, L/mg

\(m_{F}\)

Freundlich model exponent, dimensionless

\(m_{L}\)

Liu model exponent, dimensionless

\(m_{LF}\)

Heterogeneity parameter, dimensionless

\(m_{N}\)

Nitta model exponent, dimensionless

\(m_{PDM}\)

Polany–Dubinin–Manes model exponent, dimensionless

\(m_{RP}\)

Redlich Peterson model exponent, dimensionless

\(m_{RPI}\)

Radke–Prausnitz model exponent, dimensionless

\(m_{S}\)

Sips model exponent, dimensionless

\(m_{T}\)

Toth model exponent, dimensionless

\(n_{o}\)

Order of kinetic adsorption

\(n_{AV}\)

Fractionary order exponent, dimensionless

\(pK_{a}\)

Acid dissociation constant, dimensionless

\(pH_{zc}\)

pH at zero charge, dimensionless

\(q\)

Amount of solute adsorbed per gram of adsorbent, mg/g

\(q_{BS}\)

Saturation adsorption value of Brouers Sotolongo model, mg/g

\(q_{e}\)

Equilibrium adsorption capacity, mg/g

\(q_{m}\)

Maximum adsorption capacity on the first monolayer, mg/g

\(q_{t}\)

Amount of adsorbate adsorbed at time t, mg/g

\(R\)

Universal gas constant, J/mol/K

\(S\)

Entropy, J/mol/K

\(S_{a}\)

Adsorbate solubility, mg/L

\(t\)

Time, s, min, h

\(T\)

Temperature, K

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the University Research Board (URB) at the American University of Beirut.

Supplementary material

11157_2017_9456_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 13 kb)

References

  1. Acosta R, Fierro V, Martinez de Yuso A, Nabarlatz D, Celzard A (2016) Tetracycline adsorption onto activated carbons produced by KOH activation of tyre pyrolysis char. Chemosphere 149:168–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed MJ (2017) Adsorption of quinolone, tetracycline, and penicillin antibiotics from aqueous solution using activated carbons: review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 50:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed MJ, Theydan SK (2012) Adsorption of cephalexin onto activated carbons from Albizia lebbeck seed pods by microwave-induced KOH and K2CO3 activations. Chem Eng J 211–212:200–207.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed MJ, Theydan SK (2014) Fluoroquinolones antibiotics adsorption onto microporous activated carbon from lignocellulosic biomass by microwave pyrolysis. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45:219–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2013.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmed MB, Zhou JL, Ngo HH, Guo W (2015) Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from water and wastewater: progress and challenges. Sci Total Environ 532:112–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmed MB, Zhou JL, Ngo HH, Guo W, Johir MAH, Belhaj D (2017a) Competitive sorption affinity of sulfonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics toward functionalized biochar for water and wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 238:306–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.04.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmed MB, Zhou JL, Ngo HH, Guo W, Johir MAH, Sornalingam K (2017b) Single and competitive sorption properties and mechanism of functionalized biochar for removing sulfonamide antibiotics from water. Chem Eng J 311:348–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.11.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aksu Z, Tunç Ö (2005) Application of biosorption for penicillin G removal: comparison with activated carbon. Process Biochem 40:831–847.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2004.02.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aktas O, Cecen F (2007) Bioregeneration of activated carbon: a review. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 59:257–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2007.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alahabadi A et al (2017) Comparing adsorption properties of NH 4 Cl-modified activated carbon towards chlortetracycline antibiotic with those of commercial activated carbon. J Mol Liq 232:367–381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2017.02.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Altmann J, Ruhl AS, Zietzschmann F, Jekel M (2014) Direct comparison of ozonation and adsorption onto powdered activated carbon for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment. Water Res 55:185–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Álvarez Torrellas S, García Lovera R, Escalona N, Sepúlveda C, Sotelo JL, García J (2015) Chemical-activated carbons from peach stones for the adsorption of emerging contaminants in aqueous solutions. Chem Eng J 279:788–798.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.05.104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Álvarez-Torrellas S, Rodríguez A, Ovejero G, García J (2016) Comparative adsorption performance of ibuprofen and tetracycline from aqueous solution by carbonaceous materials. Chem Eng J 283:936–947.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.08.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Álvarez-Torrellas S, Peres JA, Gil-Álvarez V, Ovejero G, García J (2017) Effective adsorption of non-biodegradable pharmaceuticals from hospital wastewater with different carbon materials. Chem Eng J 320:319–329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.03.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ania CO, Parra JB, Menendez JA, Pis JJ (2007) Microwave-assisted regeneration of activated carbons loaded with pharmaceuticals. Water Res 41:3299–3306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Awwad M, Al-Rimawi F, Dajani KJ, Khamis M, Nir S, Karaman R (2015) Removal of amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil by advanced membranes technology, activated carbon and micelle-clay complex. Environ Technol 36:2069–2078.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2015.1019935 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Backhaus T (2014) Medicines, shaken and stirred: a critical review on the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical mixtures. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0585 Google Scholar
  18. Baghdadi M, Ghaffari E, Aminzadeh B (2016) Removal of carbamazepine from municipal wastewater effluent using optimally synthesized magnetic activated carbon: adsorption and sedimentation kinetic studies. J Environ Chem Eng 4:3309–3321.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.06.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barbosa MO, Moreira NF, Ribeiro AR, Pereira MF, Silva AM (2016) Occurrence and removal of organic micropollutants: an overview of the watch list of EU Decision 2015/495. Water Res 94:257–279.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.02.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Belhachemi M, Djelaila S (2017) Removal of amoxicillin antibiotic from aqueous solutions by date pits activated carbons environmental processes.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-017-0245-8 Google Scholar
  21. Bernardo M et al (2016) High efficacy on diclofenac removal by activated carbon produced from potato peel waste. Int J Environ Sci Technol 13:1989–2000.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-016-1030-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bhadra BN, Seo PW, Jhung SH (2016) Adsorption of diclofenac sodium from water using oxidized activated carbon. Chem Eng J 301:27–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.04.143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bo L, Gao N, Liu J, Gao B (2016) The competitive adsorption of pharmaceuticals on granular activated carbon in secondary effluent. Desalin Water Treat 57:17023–17029.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1082942 Google Scholar
  24. Bojić D, Momčilović M, Milenković D, Mitrović J, Banković P, Velinov N, Nikolić G (2015) Characterization of a low cost Lagenaria vulgaris based carbon for ranitidine removal from aqueous solutions. Arab J Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.12.018 Google Scholar
  25. Cabrita I, Ruiz B, Mestre AS, Fonseca IM, Carvalho AP, Ania CO (2010) Removal of an analgesic using activated carbons prepared from urban and industrial residues. Chem Eng J 163:249–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.07.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cai N, Larese-Casanova P (2014) Sorption of carbamazepine by commercial graphene oxides: a comparative study with granular activated carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Colloid Interface Sci 426:152–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2014.03.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Calisto V, Ferreira CIA, Oliveira JAPB, Otero M, Esteves VI (2015) Adsorptive removal of pharmaceuticals from water by commercial and waste-based carbons. J Environ Manag 152:83–90.  https://doi/org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.01.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Calisto V, Jaria G, Silva CP, Ferreira CI, Otero M, Esteves VI (2017) Single and multi-component adsorption of psychiatric pharmaceuticals onto alternative and commercial carbons. J Environ Manag 192:15–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carpenter SR, Stanley EH, Zanden MJV (2011) State of the world’s freshwater ecosystems: physical, chemical, and biological changes. Annu Rev Environ Resour 36:75–99.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-021810-094524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carrales-Alvarado DH, Ocampo-Perez R, Leyva-Ramos R, Rivera-Utrilla J (2014) Removal of the antibiotic metronidazole by adsorption on various carbon materials from aqueous phase. J Colloid Interface Sci 436:276–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2014.08.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chang EE, Wan JC, Kim H, Liang CH, Dai YD, Chiang PC (2015) Adsorption of selected pharmaceutical compounds onto activated carbon in dilute aqueous solutions exemplified by acetaminophen, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole. Sci World J 2015:186501.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/186501 Google Scholar
  32. Chayid MA, Ahmed MJ (2015) Amoxicillin adsorption on microwave prepared activated carbon from Arundo donax Linn: isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies. J Environ Chem Eng 3:1592–1601.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chu L, Wang J (2017) Regeneration of sulfamethoxazole-saturated activated carbon using gamma irradiation. Radiat Phys Chem 130:391–396.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2016.09.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coutu OM, Matos I, da Fonseca IM, Arroyo PA, da Silva EA, de Barros MASD (2015) Effect of solution pH and influence of water hardness on caffeine adsorption onto activated carbons The. Can J Chem Eng 93:68–77.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.22104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Darweesh TM, Ahmed MJ (2017) Batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stones by KOH chemical activation. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 50:159–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. de Franco MAE, de Carvalho CB, Bonetto MM, Soares RdP, Féris LA (2017) Removal of amoxicillin from water by adsorption onto activated carbon in batch process and fixed bed column: kinetics, isotherms, experimental design and breakthrough curves modelling. J Clean Prod 161:947–956.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.05.197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. de Luna MDG, Murniati, Budianta W, Rivera KKP, Arazo RO (2017) Removal of sodium diclofenac from aqueous solution by adsorbents derived from cocoa pod husks. J Environ Chem Eng 5:1465–1474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.02.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. de Ridder DJ et al (2009) Development of a predictive model to determine micropollutant removal using granular activated carbon. Drink Water Eng Sci 2:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. de Ridder DJ, Villacorte L, Verliefde AR, Verberk JQ, Heijman SG, Amy GL, van Dijk JC (2010) Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon. Water Res 44:3077–3086.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.02.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. dos Reis GS, Bin Mahbub MK, Wilhelm M, Lima EC, Hoffmann Sampaio C, Saucier C, Pereira Dias SL (2016) Activated carbon from sewage sludge for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous solutions. Korean J Chem Eng 33:3149–3161.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-016-0194-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Delgado LF, Charles P, Glucina K, Morlay C (2012) The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutically activated compounds and cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water preparation using activated carbon—a review. Sci Total Environ 435–436:509–525.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.07.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Delgado LF, Charles P, Glucina K, Morlay C (2014) Adsorption of ibuprofen and atenolol at trace concentration on activated carbon. Sep Sci Technol 50:1487–1496.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2014.975360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Delgado LF, Charles P, Glucina K, Morlay C (2015) Adsorption of ibuprofen and atenolol at trace concentration on activated carbon. Sep Sci Technol 50:1487–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dutta M, Dutta NN, Bhattacharya KG (1999) Aqueous phase adsorption of certain beta-lactam antibiotics onto polymeric resins and activated carbon. Sep Purif Technol 16:213–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5866(99)00011-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ek M, Baresel C, Magner J, Bergstrom R, Harding M (2014) Activated carbon for the removal of pharmaceutical residues from treated wastewater. Water Sci Technol 69:2372–2380.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2014.172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. El-Shafey E-SI, Al-Lawati H, Al-Sumri AS (2012) Ciprofloxacin adsorption from aqueous solution onto chemically prepared carbon from date palm leaflets. J Environ Sci 24:1579–1586.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1001-0742(11)60949-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. El-Shafey E-SI, Al-Lawati HAJ, Al-Hussaini AY (2014) Adsorption of fexofenadine and diphenhydramine on dehydrated and activated carbons from date palm leaflets. Chem Ecol 30:765–783.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02757540.2014.894986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. EPA (2017a) Granular activated carbon, drinking water treatability database. https://iaspub.epa.gov/tdb/pages/treatment/treatmentOverview.do?treatmentProcessId=2074826383
  49. EPA (2017b) Powdered activated carbon, drinking water treatability database. https://iaspub.epa.gov/tdb/pages/treatment/treatmentOverview.do?treatmentProcessId=2109700949
  50. Erdinc N, Gokturk S, Tuncay M (2010) A study on the adsorption characteristics of an amphiphilic phenothiazine drug on activated charcoal in the presence of surfactants. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 75:194–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2009.08.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Essandoh M, Kunwar B, Pittman CU, Mohan D, Mlsna T (2015) Sorptive removal of salicylic acid and ibuprofen from aqueous solutions using pine wood fast pyrolysis biochar. Chem Eng J 265:219–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fernandez ME, Ledesma B, Roman S, Bonelli PR, Cukierman AL (2015) Development and characterization of activated hydrochars from orange peels as potential adsorbents for emerging organic contaminants. Bioresour Technol 183:221–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ferreira RC et al (2015) Adsorption of paracetamol using activated carbon of dende and babassu coconut mesocarp. Int J Biol Biomol Agric Food Biotechnol Eng 9:717–722Google Scholar
  54. Flores-Cano JV, Sanchez-Polo M, Messoud J, Velo-Gala I, Ocampo-Perez R, Rivera-Utrilla J (2016) Overall adsorption rate of metronidazole, dimetridazole and diatrizoate on activated carbons prepared from coffee residues and almond shells. J Environ Manag 169:116–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Foo KY, Hameed BH (2010) Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems. Chem Eng J 156:2–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Freundlich HMF (1906) Over the adsorption in solution. J Phys Chem 57:385–470Google Scholar
  57. Fu H, Li X, Wang J, Lin P, Chen C, Zhang X, Suffet IHM (2017) Activated carbon adsorption of quinolone antibiotics in water: performance, mechanism, and modeling. J Environ Sci (China) 56:145–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fukuhara T, Iwasaki S, Kawashima M, Shinohara O, Abe I (2006) Absorbability of estrone and 17beta-estradiol in water onto activated carbon. Water Res 40:241–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.10.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Galhetas M, Mestre AS, Pinto ML, Gulyurtlu I, Lopes H, Carvalho AP (2014) Carbon-based materials prepared from pine gasification residues for acetaminophen adsorption. Chem Eng J 240:344–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.11.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gao Y, Deshusses MA (2011) Adsorption of clofibric acid and ketoprofen onto powdered activated carbon: effect of natural organic matter. Environ Technol 32:1719–1727.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2011.554888 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Garcia X, Pargament D (2015) Reusing wastewater to cope with water scarcity: economic, social and environmental considerations for decision-making. Resour Conserv Recycl 101:154–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.05.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Guedidi H, Reinert L, Lévêque J-M, Soneda Y, Bellakhal N, Duclaux L (2013) The effects of the surface oxidation of activated carbon, the solution pH and the temperature on adsorption of ibuprofen. Carbon 54:432–443.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2012.11.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Güzel F, Sayğılı H (2016) Adsorptive efficacy analysis of novel carbonaceous sorbent derived from grape industrial processing wastes towards tetracycline in aqueous solution. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 60:236–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Haro NK, Del Vecchio P, Marcilio NR, Féris LA (2017) Removal of atenolol by adsorption—study of kinetics and equilibrium. J Clean Prod 154:214–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Huang L, Sun Y, Wang W, Yue Q, Yang T (2011) Comparative study on characterization of activated carbons prepared by microwave and conventional heating methods and application in removal of oxytetracycline (OTC). Chem Eng J 171:1446–1453.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.05.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Huang L, Wang M, Shi C, Huang J, Zhang B (2014) Adsorption of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin on activated carbon prepared from lignin with H3PO4 activation. Desalin Water Treat 52:2678–2687.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.833873 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huang L, Li G, Wang B, Huang J, Zhang B (2015) Improved adsorption of streptomycin onto Thalia dealbata activated carbon modified by sodium thiosulfate. Desalin Water Treat 53:1699–1709.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.856348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hughes SR, Kay P, Brown LE (2013) Global synthesis and critical evaluation of pharmaceutical data sets collected from river systems. Environ Sci Technol 47:661–677.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es3030148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ifelebuegu AO, Ukpebor JE, Obidiegwu CC, Kwofi BC (2015) Comparative potential of black tea leaves waste to granular activated carbon in adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solution. Glob J Environ Sci Manag 1:205–214Google Scholar
  70. İlbay Z, Şahin S, Kerkez Ö, Bayazit ŞS (2015) Isolation of naproxen from wastewater using carbon-based magnetic adsorbents. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:3541–3550.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-015-0775-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Iovino P, Canzano S, Capasso S, Erto A, Musmarra D (2015) A modeling analysis for the assessment of ibuprofen adsorption mechanism onto activated carbons. Chem Eng J 277:360–367.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.04.097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jain S, Kumar P, Vyas RK, Pandit P, Dalai AK (2014a) Adsorption optimization of acyclovir on prepared activated carbon. Can J Chem Eng 92:1627–1635.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.22026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jain S, Vyas RK, Pandit P, Dalai AK (2014b) Adsorption of antiviral drug, acyclovir from aqueous solution on powdered activated charcoal: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies. Desalin Water Treat 52:4953–4968.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.810324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jodeh S, Abdelwahab F, Jaradat N, Warad I, Jodeh W (2016) Adsorption of diclofenac from aqueous solution using Cyclamen persicum tubers based activated carbon (CTAC). J Assoc Arab Univ Basic Appl Sci 20:32–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaubas.2014.11.002 Google Scholar
  75. Jung C et al (2013) Adsorption of selected endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals on activated biochars. J Hazard Mater 263(Pt 2):702–710.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.10.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jung C, Son A, Her N, Zoh K-D, Cho J, Yoon Y (2015) Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in water using carbon nanotubes: a review. J Ind Eng Chem 27:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.12.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kim SH, Shon HK, Ngo HH (2010) Adsorption characteristics of antibiotics trimethoprim on powdered and granular activated carbon. J Ind Eng Chem 16:344–349.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2009.09.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kim E et al (2016a) Sorptive removal of selected emerging contaminants using biochar in aqueous solution. J Ind Eng Chem 36:364–371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2016.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kim E, Jung C, Han J, Her N, Park CM, Son A, Yoon Y (2016b) Adsorption of selected micropollutants on powdered activated carbon and biochar in the presence of kaolinite. Desalin Water Treat.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2016.1175972 Google Scholar
  80. Kong Q, Y-n Wang, Shu L, M-s Miao (2015) Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic equations for cefalexin removal from liquids using activated carbon synthesized from loofah sponge. Desalin Water Treat 57:7933–7942.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1052991 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kong Q, He X, Shu L, M-s Miao (2017) Ofloxacin adsorption by activated carbon derived from luffa sponge: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic analyses. Process Saf Environ Prot.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2017.05.011 Google Scholar
  82. Kookana RS et al (2014) Potential ecological footprints of active pharmaceutical ingredients: an examination of risk factors in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0586 Google Scholar
  83. Kovalova L, Knappe DR, Lehnberg K, Kazner C, Hollender J (2013) Removal of highly polar micropollutants from wastewater by powdered activated carbon. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 20:3607–3615.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1432-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kumar A, Mohan S (2011) Endocrine disruptive synthetic estrogen (17α-ethynylestradiol) removal from aqueous phase through batch and column sorption studies: mechanistic and kinetic analysis. Desalination 276:66–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.03.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kyzas GZ, Deliyanni EA (2015) Modified activated carbons from potato peels as green environmental-friendly adsorbents for the treatment of pharmaceutical effluents. Chem Eng Res Des 97:135–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2014.08.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kyzas GZ, Kostoglou M (2014) Green adsorbents for wastewaters: a critical review. Materials 7:333–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kyzas GZ, Lazaridis NK, Deliyanni EA (2013) Oxidation time effect of activated carbons for drug adsorption. Chem Eng J 234:491–499.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.06.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kyzas GZ, Fu J, Lazaridis NK, Bikiaris DN, Matis KA (2015) New approaches on the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewaters with adsorbent materials. J Mol Liq 209:87–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2015.05.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Langmuir I (1916) The adsorption of gases on plane surface of gas, mica, and platinum. J Am Chem Soc 40:1361–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Larous S, Meniai A-H (2016) Adsorption of diclofenac from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from olive stones. Int J Hydrog Energy 41:10380–10390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.01.096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ledesma B, Roman S, Gonzalez JF, Zamora F, Rayo MC (2010) Study of the mechanisms involved in the adsorption of amitriptyline from aqueous solution onto activated carbons. Adsorpt Sci Technol 28:739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Li X, Hai FI, Nghiem LD (2011) Simultaneous activated carbon adsorption within a membrane bioreactor for an enhanced micropollutant removal. Bioresour Technol 102:5319–5324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Li G, Zhang D, Wang M, Huang J, Huang L (2013) Preparation of activated carbons from Iris tectorum employing ferric nitrate as dopant for removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 98:273–282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lima IM, McAloon A, Boateng AA (2008) Activated carbon from broiler litter: process description and cost of production. Biomass Bioenerg 32:568–572.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Limousy L, Ghouma I, Ouederni A, Jeguirim M (2016) Amoxicillin removal from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared by chemical activation of olive stone. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7404-8 Google Scholar
  96. Liu W, Zhang J, Zhang C, Ren L (2011) Sorption of norfloxacin by lotus stalk-based activated carbon and iron-doped activated alumina: mechanisms, isotherms and kinetics. Chem Eng J 171:431–438.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.03.099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Liu H, Zhang J, Bao N, Cheng C, Ren L, Zhang C (2012) Textural properties and surface chemistry of lotus stalk-derived activated carbons prepared using different phosphorus oxyacids: adsorption of trimethoprim. J Hazard Mater 235–236:367–375.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Liu P, Wang Q, Zheng C, He C (2017) Sorption of sulfadiazine, norfloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline by granular activated carbon: kinetics, mechanisms, and isotherms. Water Air Soil Pollut.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3320-x Google Scholar
  99. Lladó J, Lao-Luque C, Ruiz B, Fuente E, Solé-Sardans M, Dorado AD (2015) Role of activated carbon properties in atrazine and paracetamol adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. Process Saf Environ Prot 95:51–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2015.02.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mailler R et al (2016) Removal of emerging micropollutants from wastewater by activated carbon adsorption: experimental study of different activated carbons and factors influencing the adsorption of micropollutants in wastewater. J Environ Chem Eng 4:1102–1109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mansouri H, Carmona RJ, Gomis-Berenguer A, Souissi-Najar S, Ouederni A, Ania CO (2015) Competitive adsorption of ibuprofen and amoxicillin mixtures from aqueous solution on activated carbons. J Colloid Interface Sci 449:252–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2014.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Margot J et al (2013) Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater: ozone or powdered activated carbon? Sci Total Environ 461–462:480–498.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Martins AC et al (2015) Removal of tetracycline by NaOH-activated carbon produced from macadamia nut shells: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Chem Eng J 260:291–299.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Marzbali MH, Esmaieli M, Abolghasemi H, Marzbali MH (2016) Tetracycline adsorption by H3PO4-activated carbon produced from apricot nut shells: a batch study. Process Saf Environ Prot 102:700–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mashayekh-Salehi A, Moussavi G (2015) Removal of acetaminophen from the contaminated water using adsorption onto carbon activated with NH4Cl. Desalin Water Treat 57:12861–12873.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1051588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Masson S, Gineys M, Delpeux-Ouldriane S, Reinert L, Guittonneau S, Béguin F, Duclaux L (2016) Single, binary, and mixture adsorption of nine organic contaminants onto a microporous and a microporous/mesoporous activated carbon cloth. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 234:24–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2016.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Meinel F, Ruhl AS, Sperlich A, Zietzschmann F, Jekel M (2015) Pilot-scale investigation of micropollutant removal with granular and powdered activated carbon. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:2260–2270.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-014-2260-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Meinel F, Zietzschmann F, Ruhl AS, Sperlich A, Jekel M (2016) The benefits of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment. Water Res 91:97–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mendez-Diaz JD, Prados-Joya G, Rivera-Utrilla J, Leyva-Ramos R, Sanchez-Polo M, Ferro-Garcia MA, Medellin-Castillo NA (2010) Kinetic study of the adsorption of nitroimidazole antibiotics on activated carbons in aqueous phase. J Colloid Interface Sci 345:481–490.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.01.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mestre AS, Pires J, Nogueira JM, Parra JB, Carvalho AP, Ania CO (2009) Waste-derived activated carbons for removal of ibuprofen from solution: role of surface chemistry and pore structure. Bioresour Technol 100:1720–1726.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.09.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mestre AS et al (2014) Activated carbons prepared from industrial pre-treated cork: sustainable adsorbents for pharmaceutical compounds removal. Chem Eng J 253:408–417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.05.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mestre AS, Tyszko E, Andrade MA, Galhetas M, Freire C, Carvalho AP (2015) Sustainable activated carbons prepared from a sucrose-derived hydrochar: remarkable adsorbents for pharmaceutical compounds. R Soc Chem Adv 5:19696–19707.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra14495c Google Scholar
  113. Mestre AS, Nabiço A, Figueiredo PL, Pinto ML, Santos MSCS, Fonseca IM (2016) Enhanced clofibric acid removal by activated carbons: water hardness as a key parameter. Chem Eng J 286:538–548.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.10.066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Miao M-S, Liu Q, Shu L, Wang Z, Liu Y-Z, Kong Q (2016) Removal of cephalexin from effluent by activated carbon prepared from alligator weed: kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic analyses. Process Saf Environ Prot.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2016.03.017 Google Scholar
  115. Mondal S, Sinha K, Aikat K, Halder G (2015) Adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of ranitidine hydrochloride onto superheated steam activated carbon derived from mung bean husk. J Environ Chem Eng 3:187–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2014.11.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Moral-Rodríguez AI, Leyva-Ramos R, Ocampo-Pérez R, Mendoza-Barron J, Serratos-Alvarez IN, Salazar-Rabago JJ (2016) Removal of ronidazole and sulfamethoxazole from water solutions by adsorption on granular activated carbon: equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion mechanisms. Adsorption 22:89–103.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-016-9758-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Moussavi G, Alahabadi A, Yaghmaeian K, Eskandari M (2013) Preparation, characterization and adsorption potential of the NH4Cl-induced activated carbon for the removal of amoxicillin antibiotic from water. Chem Eng J 217:119–128.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.11.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nabais JMV, Ledesma B, Laginhas C (2012) Removal of amitriptyline from aqueous media using activated carbons. Adsorpt Sci Technol 30:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nam SW, Choi DJ, Kim SK, Her N, Zoh KD (2014) Adsorption characteristics of selected hydrophilic and hydrophobic micropollutants in water using activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 270:144–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Nazari G, Abolghasemi H, Esmaieli M (2016) Batch adsorption of cephalexin antibiotic from aqueous solution by walnut shell-based activated carbon. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 58:357–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Nebout P, Cagnon B, Delpeux S, Di Giusto A, Chedeville O (2016) Comparison of the efficiency of adsorption, ozonation, and ozone/activated carbon coupling for the removal of pharmaceuticals from water. J Environ Eng 142:04015074.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ng C, Marshall W, Rao RM, Bansode RR, Loss JN, Portier RJ (2003) Granular activated carbons from agricultural by-products: process description and estimated cost of production. Bull. 881. Louisiana State University, LSU Ag Center Research & Extension, Baton Rouge. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.526.6266&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  123. Nielsen L, Biggs MJ, Skinner W, Bandosz TJ (2014) The effects of activated carbon surface features on the reactive adsorption of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole. Carbon 80:419–432.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.08.081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Nowotny N, Epp B, Von Sonntag C, Fahlenkamp H (2007) Quantification and modeling of the elimination behavior of ecologically problematic wastewater micropollutants by adsorption on powdered and granulated activated carbon. Environ Sci Technol 41:2050–2055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ocampo-Pérez R, Leyva-Ramos R, Rivera-Utrilla J, Flores-Cano JV, Sánchez-Polo M (2015) Modeling adsorption rate of tetracyclines on activated carbons from aqueous phase. Chem Eng Res Des 104:579–588.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2015.09.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ogata F, Tominaga H, Kangawa M, Inous K, Kawasaki N (2012) Removal of sulfa drugs by sewage treatment in aqueous solution systems: activated carbon treatment and ozone oxidation. J Oleo Sci 61:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Oh H, Urase T, Simazaki D, Kim H (2013) Effect of natural organic matter on adsorption of ionic and non-ionic pharmaceuticals to granular activated carbon. Environ Prot Eng 29:15–28.  https://doi.org/10.5277/epe130402 Google Scholar
  128. Onal Y, Akmil-Basar C, Sarici-Ozdemir C (2007) Elucidation of the naproxen sodium adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from waste apricot: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic characterization. J Hazard Mater 148:727–734.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.03.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Otero M, Grande CA, Rodrigues AE (2004) Adsorption of salicylic acid onto polymeric adsorbents and activated charcoal. React Funct Polym 60:203–213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2004.02.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Peng X, Hu F, Lam FL, Wang Y, Liu Z, Dai H (2015) Adsorption behavior and mechanisms of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solution by ordered mesoporous carbon and bamboo-based carbon. J Colloid Interface Sci 460:349–360.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2015.08.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pezoti O et al (2016) NaOH-activated carbon of high surface area produced from guava seeds as a high-efficiency adsorbent for amoxicillin removal: kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 288:778–788.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.12.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Plazinski W, Rudzinski W, Plazinska A (2009) Theoretical models of sorption kinetics including a surface reaction mechanism: a review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 152:2–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2009.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pouretedal HR, Sadegh N (2014) Effective removal of amoxicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline and penicillin G from aqueous solutions using activated carbon nanoparticles prepared from vine wood. J Water Process Eng 1:64–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2014.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Quesada-Peñate I, Julcour-Lebigue C, Jáuregui-Haza U-J, Wilhelm A-M, Delmas H (2009) Comparative adsorption of levodopa from aqueous solution on different activated carbons. Chem Eng J 152:183–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.04.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rajapaksha AU, Vithanage M, Zhang M, Ahmad M, Mohan D, Chang SX, Ok YS (2014) Pyrolysis condition affected sulfamethazine sorption by tea waste biochars. Bioresour Technol 166:303–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.05.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rajapaksha AU et al (2015) Enhanced sulfamethazine removal by steam-activated invasive plant-derived biochar. J Hazard Mater 290:43–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rakic V, Rac V, Krmar M, Otman O, Auroux A (2015) The adsorption of pharmaceutically active compounds from aqueous solutions onto activated carbons. J Hazard Mater 282:141–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.04.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Reza RA, Ahmaruzzaman M, Sil AK, Gupta VK (2014) Comparative adsorption behavior of ibuprofen and clofibric acid onto microwave assisted activated bamboo waste. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:9331–9339.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie404162p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rigobello ES, Dantas AD, Di Bernardo L, Vieira EM (2013) Removal of diclofenac by conventional drinking water treatment processes and granular activated carbon filtration. Chemosphere 92:184–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rivera-Utrilla J, Prados-Joya G, Sanchez-Polo M, Ferro-Garcia MA, Bautista-Toledo I (2009) Removal of nitroimidazole antibiotics from aqueous solution by adsorption/bioadsorption on activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 170:298–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.04.096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rivera-Utrilla J, Gomez-Pacheco CV, Sanchez-Polo M, Lopez-Penalver JJ, Ocampo-Perez R (2013) Tetracycline removal from water by adsorption/bioadsorption on activated carbons and sludge-derived adsorbents. J Environ Manag 131:16–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rodriguez E, Campinis M, Acero JL, Rosa MJ (2016) Investigating PPCP removal from wastewater by powdered activated carbon/ultrafiltration. Water Air Soil Pollut.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-016-2870-7 Google Scholar
  143. Rodriguez-Narvaez OM, Peralta-Hernandez JM, Goonetilleke A, Bandala ER (2017) Treatment technologies for emerging contaminants in water: a review. Chem Eng J 323:361–380.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.04.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Román S, Nabais JMV, González JF, González-García CM, Ortiz AL (2012) Study of the contributions of non-specific and specific interactions during fluoxetine adsorption onto activated carbons. Clean Soil Air Water 40:698–705.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201100009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rossner A, Snyder SA, Knappe DR (2009) Removal of emerging contaminants of concern by alternative adsorbents. Water Res 43:3787–3796.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rovani S, Censi MT, Pedrotti SL Jr, Lima EC, Cataluna R, Fernandes AN (2014) Development of a new adsorbent from agro-industrial waste and its potential use in endocrine disruptor compound removal. J Hazard Mater 271:311–320.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ruhl AS, Zietzschmann F, Hilbrandt I, Meinel F, Altmann J, Sperlich A, Jekel M (2014) Targeted testing of activated carbons for advanced wastewater treatment. Chem Eng J 257:184–190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.07.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Ruiz B, Cabrita I, Mestre AS, Parra JB, Pires J, Carvalho AP, Ania CO (2010) Surface heterogeneity effects of activated carbons on the kinetics of paracetamol removal from aqueous solution. Appl Surf Sci 256:5171–5175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.12.086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Saravia F, Frimmel FH (2008) Role of NOM in the performance of adsorption-membrane hybrid systems applied for the removal of pharmaceuticals. Desalination 224:168–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.02.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Saucier C et al (2015) Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents. J Hazard Mater 289:18–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Saygili H, Guzel F (2016) Effective removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) industrial processing waste. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 131:22–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Segura PA et al (2015) Global occurrence of anti-infectives in contaminated surface waters: impact of income inequality between countries. Environ Int 80:89–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Shan D, Deng S, Zhao T, Yu G, Winglee J, Wiesner MR (2016) Preparation of regenerable granular carbon nanotubes by a simple heating-filtration method for efficient removal of typical pharmaceuticals. Chem Eng J 294:353–361.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.02.118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sheng C, Nnanna AG, Liu Y, Vargo JD (2016) Removal of Trace pharmaceuticals from water using coagulation and powdered activated carbon as pretreatment to ultrafiltration membrane system. Sci Total Environ 550:1075–1083.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shimabuku KK, Kearns JP, Martinez JE, Mahoney RB, Moreno-Vasquez L, Summers RS (2016) Biochar sorbents for sulfamethoxazole removal from surface water, stormwater, and wastewater effluent. Water Res 96:236–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.03.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Solak S, Vakondios N, Tzatzimaki I, Diamadopoulos E, Arda M, Kabay N, Yuksel M (2014) A comparative study of removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from treated wastewater using highly crosslinked polymeric adsorbents and activated carbon. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 89:819–824.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4315 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sotelo JL, Ovejero G, Rodríguez A, Álvarez S, Galán J, García J (2014) Competitive adsorption studies of caffeine and diclofenac aqueous solutions by activated carbon. Chem Eng J 240:443–453.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.11.094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Stoykova M, Koumanova B, Morl L (2013) Adsorptive removal of carbmazepine from wastewaters by activated charcoals. J Chem Technol Metall 48:469–474Google Scholar
  159. Sulaiman S, Khamis M, Nir S, Scrano K, Bufo SA, Karaman Rafik (2017) Diazepam stability in wastewater and removal by advanced membrane technology, activated carbon, and micelle–clay complex. Desalin Water Treat 57:3098–3106.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.981225 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sun Y, Li H, Li G, Gao B, Yue Q, Li X (2016) Characterization and ciprofloxacin adsorption properties of activated carbons prepared from biomass wastes by H3PO4 activation. Bioresour Technol 217:239–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sun L, Chen D, Wan S, Yu Z (2017) Adsorption studies of dimetridazole and metronidazole onto biochar derived from sugarcane bagasse: kinetic, equilibrium, and mechanisms. J Polym Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-017-0986-5 Google Scholar
  162. Taheran M, Brar SK, Verma M, Surampalli RY, Zhang TC, Valero JR (2016) Membrane processes for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) from water and wastewaters. Sci Total Environ 547:60–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tan KL, Hameed BH (2017) Insight into the adsorption kinetics models for the removal of contaminants from aqueous solutions. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 74:25–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.01.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Toles CA, Marshall WE, Wartelle LH, McAloon A (2000) Steam or carbon dioxide-activated carbon from almond shells: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties and estimated cost of production. Biores Technol 75:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wang J, Wang S (2016) Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater: a review. J Environ Manag 182:620–640.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.07.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wang Y, Zhu J, Huang H, Cho H-H (2015) Carbon nanotube composite membranes for microfiltration of pharmaceuticals and personal care products: capabilities and potential mechanisms. J Membr Sci 479:165–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2015.01.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wang L, Chen G, Ling C, Zhang J, Szerlag K (2017) Adsorption of ciprofloxacin on to bamboo charcoal: effects of pH, salinity, cations, and phosphate. Environ Progress Sustain Energy 36:1108–1115.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.12579 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Weber WJ, Morris JC (1963) Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution. J Sanit Eng Div 89:31–59Google Scholar
  169. Westerhoff P, Yoon Y, Snyder S, Wert E (2005) Fate of endocrine-disruptor, pharmaceutical, and personal care product chemicals during simulated drinking water treatment processes. Environ Sci Technol 39:6649–6663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. WHO (2014) Antimicrobial resistnace global report on surveillance. World Health Organization, WHO Press, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  171. Wong KT, Yoon Y, Snyder SA, Jang M (2016) Phenyl-functionalized magnetic palm-based powdered activated carbon for the effective removal of selected pharmaceutical and endocrine-disruptive compounds. Chemosphere 152:71–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Wuana RA, Sha’Ato R, Iorhen S (2015) Aqueous phase removal of ofloxacin using adsorbents from Moringa oleifera pod husks. Adv Environ Res 4:49–68.  https://doi.org/10.12989/aer.2015.4.1.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Wuana RA, Sha’Ato R, Iorhen S (2016) Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of Moringa oleifera pod husk adsorbents for aqueous phase removal of norfloxacin. Desalin Water Treat 57:11904–11916.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1046150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. WWAP (2016) The united nations world water development report: water and jobs. United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  175. Yi S, Gao B, Sun Y, Wu J, Shi X, Wu B, Hu X (2016) Removal of levofloxacin from aqueous solution using rice-husk and wood-chip biochars. Chemosphere 150:694–701.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Yoon Y, Westerhoff P, Snyder SA, Esparza M (2003) HPLC-fluorescence detection and adsorption of bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethynyl estradiol on powdered activated carbon. Water Res 37:3530–3537.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1354(03)00239-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Yu Z, Peldszus S, Huck PM (2008) Adsorption characteristics of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound—naproxen, carbamazepine and nonylphenol—on activated carbon. Water Res 42:2873–2882.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Yu Z, Peldszus S, Huck PM (2009) Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 1. Adsorption capacity and kinetics. Environ Sci Technol 43:1467–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Yu F, Li Y, Han S, Ma J (2016) Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from aqueous solution using carbon materials. Chemosphere 153:365–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Yuen FK, Hameed BH (2009) Recent developments in the preparation and regeneration of activated carbons by microwaves. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 149:19–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2008.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Zanella O, Tessaro IC, Feris LA (2014) Desorption-and decomposition-based techniques for the regeneration of activated carbon. Chem Eng Technol 37:1447–1459.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201300808 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Zhang Y, Zhou JL (2005) Removal of estrone and 17beta-estradiol from water by adsorption. Water Res 39:3991–4003.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.07.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Zhang S, Shao T, Bekaroglu SS, Karanfil T (2010) Adsorption of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes: effects of background solution chemistry. Water Res 44:2067–2074.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.12.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Zhang D, Yin J, Zhao J, Zhu H, Wang C (2015) Adsorption and removal of tetracycline from water by petroleum coke-derived highly porous activated carbon. J Environ Chem Eng 3:1504–1512.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zhang X, Guo W, Ngo HH, Wen H, Li N, Wu W (2016) Performance evaluation of powdered activated carbon for removing 28 types of antibiotics from water. J Environ Manag 172:193–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zhang B, Han X, Gu P, Fang S, Bai J (2017) Response surface methodology approach for optimization of ciprofloxacin adsorption using activated carbon derived from the residue of desilicated rice husk. J Mol Liq 238:316–325.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2017.04.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhou Y, Zhang L, Cheng Z (2015) Removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solution using agricultural wastes: a review. J Mol Liq 212:739–762.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2015.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Zietzschmann F, Altmann J, Hannemann C, Jekel M (2015) Lab-testing, predicting, and modeling multi-stage activated carbon adsorption of organic micro-pollutants from treated wastewater. Water Res 83:52–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.06.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Zimmerman JB, Mihelcic JR, Smith J (2008) Global stressors on water quality and quantity. Environ Sci Technol 42:4247–4254.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es0871457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Ziska AD, Park M, Anumol T, Snyder SA (2016) Predicting trace organic compound attenuation with spectroscopic parameters in powdered activated carbon processes. Chemosphere 156:163–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Zuo L, Ai J, Fu H, Chen W, Zheng S, Xu Z, Zhu D (2016) Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: batch and fixed-bed studies. Environ Pollut 211:425–434.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.12.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringAmerican University of BeirutRiad El Solh, BeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringAmerican University of BeirutRiad El Solh, BeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations