Advertisement

Developments in pre-treatment methods to improve anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge

  • P. Neumann
  • S. Pesante
  • M. Venegas
  • G. Vidal
review paper

Abstract

During wastewater treatment, most organic matter is transferred to a solid phase commonly known as sludge or biosolids. The high cost of sludge management and the growing interest in alternative energy sources have prompted proposals for different strategies to optimize biogas production during anaerobic sludge treatment. Because of the high solid content and complex structure of sludge-derived organic matter, methane production during digestion is limited at the hydrolysis step. Therefore, large digester volume and long retention times of over 20 days are necessary to achieve adequate stabilization. Pre-treatments can be used to hydrolyze sludge and consequently improve biogas production, solids removal and sludge quality after digestion. This paper reviews the main pre-treatment processes, with emphasis on the most recent developments. An overview of the different technologies is presented, discussing their effects on sludge properties and anaerobic digestion. Future challenges and concerns related to pre-treatment assessment and implementation are also addressed.

Keywords

Sewage sludge Hydrolysis Pre-treatment Biogas production Biosolids Anaerobic digestion 

Abbreviations

AD

Anaerobic digestion

ATH

Advanced thermal hydrolysis

BOD

Biochemical oxygen demand

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

CST

Capillary suction time

DD

Disintegration degree

DMDO

Dimethyldioxirane

DOC

Dissolved organic carbon

DS

Dry solids

EDC

Endocrine disrupting compounds

EPS

Extracellular polymeric substances

F/I

Feed/inoculum ratio

FC

Fecal coliforms

GRS

Growth rate of solubilization

HE

Helminth eggs

HPH

High pressure homogenization

MW

Microwave

ODS

Organic dry solids

OLR

Organic loading rate

OM

Organic matter

OUR

Oxygen uptake rate

PAA

Peracetic acid

POMS

Peroxymonosulfate

PT

Pre-treatment

SBOD

Soluble biochemical oxygen demand

SCOD

Soluble chemical oxygen demand

SN

Salmonella

SS

Suspended solids

SRF

Specific resistance to filtration

SRT

Solids retention time

SVI

Sludge volumetric index

TCOD

Total chemical oxygen demand

TN

Total nitrogen

TPAD

Thermally-phased anaerobic digestion

TSPB-AD

Temperature-staged biologically-phased anaerobic digestion

TS

Total solids

TSS

Total suspended solids

US

Ultrasound

VFAs

Volatile fatty acids

VS

Volatile solids

VSS

Volatile suspended solids

WAS

Waste activated sludge

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Grant No. 21110449 from CONICYT (Chile), Grant CONICYT + PAI/2014 No. 781413004 and CONICYT/FONDAP/15130015. The authors also thank the Doctoral Network REDOC.CTA, MINEDUC Grant UCO1202 at the University of Concepcion. P. Neumann and M. Venegas thank to CONICYT for their Scholarship Program CONICYT-PCHA/Doctorado Nacional/2013-21130054 and CONICYT-PCHA/Doctorado Nacional/2016-21160100, respectively for supporting their Ph.D. studies at the University of Concepción.

References

  1. Abbassi-Guendouz A, Brockmann D, Trably E et al (2012) Total solids content drives high solid anaerobic digestion via mass transfer limitation. Bioresour Technol 111:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abelleira J, Pérez-Elvira SI, Sánchez-Oneto J et al (2012) Advanced thermal hydrolysis of secondary sewage sludge: a novel process combining thermal hydrolysis and hydrogen peroxide addition. Resour Conserv Recycl 59:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abelleira-Pereira JM, Pérez-Elvira SI, Sánchez-Oneto J et al (2015) Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment. Water Res 71:330–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahn KH, Park KY, Maeng SK et al (2002) Ozonation of wastewater sludge for reduction and recycling. Water Sci Technol 46:71–77Google Scholar
  5. Ak MS, Muz M, Komesli OT, Gökçay CF (2013) Enhancement of bio-gas production and xenobiotics degradation during anaerobic sludge digestion by ozone treated feed sludge. Chem Eng J 230:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Appels L, Baeyens J, Degrève J, Dewil R (2008) Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. Prog Energy Combust Sci 34:755–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appels L, Degrève J, Van der Bruggen B et al (2010) Influence of low temperature thermal pre-treatment on sludge solubilisation, heavy metal release and anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 101:5743–5748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Appels L, Assche AV, Willems K et al (2011) Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Bioresour Technol 102:4124–4130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Appels L, Houtmeyers S, Degrève J et al (2013) Influence of microwave pre-treatment on sludge solubilization and pilot scale semi-continuous anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 128:598–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ariunbaatar J, Panico A, Esposito G et al (2014) Pretreatment methods to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste. Appl Energy 123:143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Athanasoulia E, Melidis P, Aivasidis A (2012) Optimization of biogas production from waste activated sludge through serial digestion. Renew Energy 47:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barjenbruch M, Kopplow O (2003) Enzymatic, mechanical and thermal pre-treatment of surplus sludge. Adv Environ Res 7:715–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benabdallah El-Hadj T, Dosta J, Márquez-Serrano R, Mata-Alvarez J (2007) Effect of ultrasound pretreatment in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with emphasis on naphthalene and pyrene removal. Water Res 41:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernal-Martinez A, Carrère H, Patureau D, Delgenès J-P (2007) Ozone pre-treatment as improver of PAH removal during anaerobic digestion of urban sludge. Chemosphere 68:1013–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolzonella D, Pavan P, Battistoni P, Cecchi F (2005) Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: influence of the solid retention time in the wastewater treatment process. Process Biochem 40:1453–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolzonella D, Pavan P, Zanette M, Cecchi F (2007) Two-phase anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: effect of an extreme thermophilic prefermentation. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:6650–6655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolzonella D, Cavinato C, Fatone F et al (2012) High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: a pilot scale study. Waste Manag 32:1196–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Borowski S, Szopa JS (2007) Experiences with the dual digestion of municipal sewage sludge. Bioresour Technol 98:1199–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bougrier C, Carrère H, Delgenès JP (2005) Solubilisation of waste-activated sludge by ultrasonic treatment. Chem Eng J 106:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bougrier C, Albasi C, Delgenès JP, Carrère H (2006a) Effect of ultrasonic, thermal and ozone pre-treatments on waste activated sludge solubilisation and anaerobic biodegradability. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 45:711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bougrier C, Delgenès J-P, Carrère H (2006b) Combination of thermal treatments and anaerobic digestion to reduce sewage sludge quantity and improve biogas yield. Process Saf Environ Prot 84:280–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bougrier C, Delgenès JP, Carrère H (2007) Impacts of thermal pre-treatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Biochem Eng J 34:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bougrier C, Delgenès JP, Carrère H (2008) Effects of thermal treatments on five different waste activated sludge samples solubilisation, physical properties and anaerobic digestion. Chem Eng J 139:236–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Braguglia CM, Gianico A, Mininni G (2010) Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion. J Environ Manage 95:S139–S143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Braguglia CM, Gianico A, Mininni G (2011) Laboratory-scale ultrasound pre-treated digestion of sludge: heat and energy balance. Bioresour Technol 102:7567–7573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Braguglia CM, Gagliano MC, Rossetti S (2012) High frequency ultrasound pretreatment for sludge anaerobic digestion: effect on floc structure and microbial population. Bioresour Technol 110:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Braguglia CM, Coors A, Gallipoli A et al (2015) Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:7216–7235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burgess J, Pletschke B (2008) Hydrolytic enzymes in sewage sludge treatment: a mini-review. Water SA 34:343–349Google Scholar
  29. Cacho Rivero JA, Madhavan N, Suidan MT et al (2006) Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess municipal sludge with thermal and/or oxidative treatment. J Environ Eng 132:638–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cano R, Pérez-Elvira SI, Fdz-Polanco F (2015) Energy feasibility study of sludge pretreatments: a review. Appl Energy 149:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carballa M, Manterola G, Larrea L et al (2007) Influence of ozone pre-treatment on sludge anaerobic digestion: removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Chemosphere 67:1444–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Carballa M, Omil F, Lema JM (2008) Influence of different pretreatments on anaerobically digested sludge characteristics: suitability for final disposal. Water Air Soil Pollut 199:311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Carballa M, Duran C, Hospido A (2011) Should we pretreat solid waste prior to anaerobic digestion? An assessment of its environmental cost. Environ Sci Technol 45:10306–10314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carlsson M, Lagerkvist A, Morgan-Sagastume F (2012) The effects of substrate pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion systems: a review. Waste Manag 32:1634–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carrère H, Bougrier C, Castets D, Delgenès JP (2008) Impact of initial biodegradability on sludge anaerobic digestion enhancement by thermal pretreatment. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43:1551–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carrère H, Dumas C, Battimelli A et al (2010) Pretreatment methods to improve sludge anaerobic degradability: a review. J Hazard Mater 183:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carvajal A, Peña M, Pérez-Elvira S (2013) Autohydrolysis pretreatment of secondary sludge for anaerobic digestion. Biochem Eng J 75:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Charles W, Ng B, Cord-Ruwisch R et al (2013) Enhancement of waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion by a novel chemical free acid/alkaline pretreatment using electrolysis. Water Sci Technol 67:2827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chen Y, Jiang S, Yuan H et al (2007) Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res 41:683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chen Y, Cheng JJ, Creamer KS (2008) Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review. Bioresour Technol 99:4044–4064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cheng DC-H (1986) Yield stress: a time-dependent property and how to measure it. Rheol Acta 554:542–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cheng C-J, Hong PKA (2013) Anaerobic digestion of activated sludge after pressure-assisted ozonation. Bioresour Technol 142:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cheng C-J, Hong PKA, Lin C-F (2012) Improved solubilization of activated sludge by ozonation in pressure cycles. Chemosphere 87:637–643Google Scholar
  44. Chi Y, Li Y, Fei X et al (2011) Enhancement of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment. J Environ Sci 23:1257–1265Google Scholar
  45. Cho S-K, Ju H-J, Lee J-G, Kim S-H (2014) Alkaline-mechanical pretreatment process for enhanced anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge with a novel crushing device: performance evaluation and economic analysis. Bioresour Technol 165:183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chu CP, Lee DJ, Chang B-V et al (2002) “Weak” ultrasonic pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of flocculated activated biosolids. Water Res 36:2681–2688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Chu L, Wang J, Wang B (2011) Effect of gamma irradiation on activities and physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge. Biochem Eng J 54:34–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Climent M, Ferrer I, Baeza MDM et al (2007) Effects of thermal and mechanical pretreatments of secondary sludge on biogas production under thermophilic conditions. Chem Eng J 133:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Coelho NMG, Droste RL, Kennedy KJ (2011) Evaluation of continuous mesophilic, thermophilic and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of microwaved activated sludge. Water Res 45:2822–2834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Davidsson A, Jansen J (2006) Pre-treatment of wastewater sludge before anaerobic digestion—hygienisation, ultrasonic treatment and enzyme dosing. Vatten 62:335–340Google Scholar
  51. del Río AV, Morales N, Isanta E et al (2011) Thermal pre-treatment of aerobic granular sludge: impact on anaerobic biodegradability. Water Res 45:6011–6020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Devlin DC, Esteves SRR, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2011) The effect of acid pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion and dewatering of waste activated sludge. Bioresour Technol 102:4076–4082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dewil R, Appels L, Baeyens J, Degrève J (2007) Peroxidation enhances the biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of biosolids. J Hazard Mater 146:577–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dhar BR, Elbeshbishy E, Hafez H et al (2011a) Thermo-oxidative pretreatment of municipal waste activated sludge for volatile sulfur compounds removal and enhanced anaerobic digestion. Chem Eng J 174:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dhar BR, Youssef E, Nakhla G, Ray MB (2011b) Pretreatment of municipal waste activated sludge for volatile sulfur compounds control in anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 102:3776–3782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dhar BR, Nakhla G, Ray MB (2012) Techno-economic evaluation of ultrasound and thermal pretreatments for enhanced anaerobic digestion of municipal waste activated sludge. Waste Manag 32:542–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Doğan I, Sanin FD (2009) Alkaline solubilization and microwave irradiation as a combined sludge disintegration and minimization method. Water Res 43:2139–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dohányos M, Zábranská J, Kutil J, Jenícek P (2004) Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge. Water Sci Technol 49:89–96Google Scholar
  59. Donoso-Bravo A, Pérez-Elvira S, Aymerich E, Fdz-Polanco F (2011) Assessment of the influence of thermal pre-treatment time on the macromolecular composition and anaerobic biodegradability of sewage sludge. Bioresour Technol 102:660–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dumas C, Perez S, Paul E, Lefebvre X (2010) Combined thermophilic aerobic process and conventional anaerobic digestion: effect on sludge biodegradation and methane production. Bioresour Technol 101:2629–2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dursun D, Turkmen M, Abu-Orf M, Dentel SK (2006) Enhanced sludge conditioning by enzyme pre-treatment: comparison of laboratory and pilot scale dewatering results. Water Sci Technol 54:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dwyer J, Starrenburg D, Tait S et al (2008) Decreasing activated sludge thermal hydrolysis temperature reduces product colour, without decreasing degradability. Water Res 42:4699–4709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Engelhart M, Krüger M, Kopp J, Dichtl N (2000) Effects of disintegration on anaerobic degradation of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film digesters. Water Sci Technol 41:171–179Google Scholar
  64. EPA (1995) Process design manual: land application of sewage sludge and domestic septage. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Google Scholar
  65. Erden G, Filibeli A (2010a) Ultrasonic pre-treatment of biological sludge: consequences for disintegration, anaerobic biodegradability, and filterability. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 85:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Erden G, Filibeli A (2010b) Improving anaerobic biodegradability of biological sludges by Fenton pre-treatment: effects on single stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion. Desalination 251:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Erden G, Filibeli A (2011) Effects of fenton pre-treatment on waste activated sludge properties. Clean Soil Air Water 39:626–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Eskicioglu C, Terzian N, Kennedy KJ et al (2007) Athermal microwave effects for enhancing digestibility of waste activated sludge. Water Res 41:2457–2466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Eskicioglu C, Kennedy KJ, Droste RL (2008) Initial examination of microwave pretreatment on primary, secondary and mixed sludges before and after anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 57:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Eskicioglu C, Kennedy KJ, Droste RL (2009) Enhanced disinfection and methane production from sewage sludge by microwave irradiation. Desalination 248:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fang W, Zhang P, Zhang G et al (2014) Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization. Bioresour Technol 168:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fdz-Polanco F, Velazquez R, Perez-Elvira SI et al (2008) Continuous thermal hydrolysis and energy integration in sludge anaerobic digestion plants. Water Sci Technol 57:1221–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ferrer I, Ponsá S, Vázquez F, Font X (2008) Increasing biogas production by thermal (70 °C) sludge pre-treatment prior to thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Biochem Eng J 42:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gallipoli A, Gianico A, Gagliano MC, Braguglia CM (2014) Potential of high-frequency ultrasounds to improve sludge anaerobic conversion and surfactants removal at different food/inoculum ratio. Bioresour Technol 159:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gavala HN, Yenal U, Skiadas IV et al (2003) Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. Effect of pre-treatment at elevated temperature. Water Res 37:4561–4572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gavala HN, Yenal U, Ahring BK (2004) Thermal and enzymatic pretreatment of sludge containing phthalate esters prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Biotechnol Bioeng 85:561–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ge H, Jensen PD, Batstone DJ (2010) Pre-treatment mechanisms during thermophilic–mesophilic temperature phased anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Water Res 44:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ge H, Jensen PD, Batstone DJ (2011a) Temperature phased anaerobic digestion increases apparent hydrolysis rate for waste activated sludge. Water Res 45:1597–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ge H, Jensen PD, Batstone DJ (2011b) Increased temperature in the thermophilic stage in temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) improves degradability of waste activated sludge. J Hazard Mater 187:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gianico A, Braguglia CM, Cesarini R, Mininni G (2013) Reduced temperature hydrolysis at 134 °C before thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at increasing organic load. Bioresour Technol 143:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gianico A, Braguglia CM, Gallipoli A, Mininni G (2014) Innovative two-stage mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic degradation of sonicated sludge: performances and energy balance. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 22:7248–7256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Goel R, Tokutomi T, Yasui H (2003) Anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge with ozone pretreatment. Water Sci Technol 47:207–214Google Scholar
  83. Gossett JM (1982) Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. J Environ Eng Div 108:1101–1120Google Scholar
  84. Graja S, Chauzy J, Fernandes P et al (2005) Reduction of sludge production from WWTP using thermal pretreatment and enhanced anaerobic methanisation. Water Sci Technol 52:267–273Google Scholar
  85. Grübel K, Machnicka A (2009) Use of hydrodynamic disintegration to accelerate anaerobic digestion of surplus activated sludge. Water Environ Res 81:2420–2426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Grübel K, Suschka J (2015) Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:7258–7270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Guo W-Q, Yang S-S, Pang J-W et al (2013) Application of low frequency ultrasound to stimulate the bio-activity of activated sludge for use as an inoculum in enhanced hydrogen production. RSC Adv 3:21848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Haug RT, Stuckey DC, Gossett JM et al (1978) Effect of thermal pretreatment on digestibility and dewaterability of organic sludges. Water Pollut Control Fed 50:73–85Google Scholar
  89. Jang J-H, Ahn J-H (2013) Effect of microwave pretreatment in presence of NaOH on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge. Bioresour Technol 131:437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jang HM, Cho HU, Park SK et al (2014) Influence of thermophilic aerobic digestion as a sludge pre-treatment and solids retention time of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on the methane production, sludge digestion and microbial communities in a sequential digestion process. Water Res 48:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jean DS, Lee DJ, Chang CY (2001) Direct sludge freezing using dry ice. Adv Environ Res 5:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kaynak GE, Filibeli A (2008) Assessment of Fenton process as a minimization technique for biological sludge: effects on anaerobic sludge bioprocessing. J Residuals Sci Technol 5:151–160Google Scholar
  93. Khanal SK, Grewell D, Sung S, van Leeuwen J (Hans) (2007) Ultrasound applications in wastewater sludge pretreatment: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 37:277–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kim J, Park C, Kim T-H et al (2003) Effects of various pretreatments for enhanced anaerobic digestion with waste activated sludge. J Biosci Bioeng 95:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kim DH, Jeong E, Oh SE, Shin HS (2010) Combined (alkaline + ultrasonic) pretreatment effect on sewage sludge disintegration. Water Res 44:3093–3100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kim DH, Cho SK, Lee MK, Kim MS (2013a) Increased solubilization of excess sludge does not always result in enhanced anaerobic digestion efficiency. Bioresour Technol 143:660–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kim J, Yu Y, Lee C (2013b) Thermo-alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge at low-temperatures: effects on sludge disintegration, methane production, and methanogen community structure. Bioresour Technol 144:194–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kopplow O, Barjenbruch M, Heinz V (2004) Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields. Water Sci Technol 49:123–129Google Scholar
  99. Kuglarz M, Karakashev D, Angelidaki I (2013) Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Bioresour Technol 134:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lee I-S, Rittmann BE (2011) Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Bioresour Technol 102:2542–2548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Li H, Jin Y, Mahar R et al (2008) Effects and model of alkaline waste activated sludge treatment. Bioresour Technol 99:5140–5144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Li H, Li C, Liu W, Zou S (2012) Optimized alkaline pretreatment of sludge before anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 123:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lin J-G, Chang C-N, Chang S-C (1997) Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by alkaline solubilization. Bioresour Technol 62:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lu J, Gavala HN, Skiadas IV et al (2008) Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step. J Environ Manage 88:881–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Martín MÁ, González I, Serrano A, Siles JÁ (2015) Evaluation of the improvement of sonication pre-treatment in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. J Environ Manag 147:330–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Massanet-Nicolau J, Dinsdale R, Guwy A (2008) Hydrogen production from sewage sludge using mixed microflora inoculum: effect of pH and enzymatic pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 99:6325–6331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mayhew ME, Le MS, Ratcliff R (2002) A novel approach to pathogen reduction in biosolids: the enzymic hydrolyser. Water Sci Technol 46:427–434Google Scholar
  108. Miah MS, Tada C, Yang Y, Sawayama S (2005) Aerobic thermophilic bacteria enhance biogas production. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 7:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Montusiewicz A, Lebiocka M, Rozej A et al (2010) Freezing/thawing effects on anaerobic digestion of mixed sewage sludge. Bioresour Technol 101:3466–3473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mori M, Seyssiecq I, Roche N (2006) Rheological measurements of sewage sludge for various solids concentrations and geometry. Process Biochem 41:1656–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Müller JA (2003) Comminution of organic material. Chem Eng Technol 26:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Neis U, Nickel K, Lundén A (2008) Improving anaerobic and aerobic degradation by ultrasonic disintegration of biomass. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43:1541–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Neyens E, Baeyens J (2003) A review of thermal sludge pre-treatment processes to improve dewaterability. J Hazard Mater 98:51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Neyens E, Baeyens J, Creemers C (2003) Alkaline thermal sludge hydrolysis. J Hazard Mater 97:295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Neyens E, Baeyens J, Dewil R, De Heyder B (2004) Advanced sludge treatment affects extracellular polymeric substances to improve activated sludge dewatering. J Hazard Mater 106:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nges IA, Liu J (2009) Effects of anaerobic pre-treatment on the degradation of dewatered-sewage sludge. Renew Energy 34:1795–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Novak JT, Banjade S, Murthy SN (2011) Combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion for increased solids reduction and nitrogen removal. Water Res 45:618–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pagilla KR, Craney KC, Kido WH (1996) Aerobic thermophilic pretreatment of mixed sludge for pathogen reduction and nocardia control. Water Environ Res 68:1093–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Palmowski LM, Müller JA (2000) Influence of the size reduction of organic waste on their anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 41:155–162Google Scholar
  120. Park C, Lee C, Kim S et al (2005) Upgrading of anaerobic digestion by incorporating two different hydrolysis processes. J Biosci Bioeng 100:164–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Park SK, Jang HM, Ha JH, Park JM (2014) Sequential sludge digestion after diverse pre-treatment conditions: sludge removal, methane production and microbial community changes. Bioresour Technol 162:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Penaud V, Delgenès J, Moletta R (1999) Thermo-chemical pretreatment of a microbial biomass: influence of sodium hydroxide addition on solubilization and anaerobic biodegradability. Enzyme Microb Technol 25:258–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pérez-Elvira SI, Nieto Diez P, Fdz-Polanco F (2006) Sludge minimisation technologies. Rev Environ Sci Bio Technol 5:375–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pérez-Elvira SI, Fdz-Polanco M, Plaza FI et al (2009) Ultrasound pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion improvement. Water Sci Technol 60:1525–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pérez-Elvira SI, Ferreira LC, Donoso-Bravo A et al (2010) Full-stream and part-stream ultrasound treatment effect on sludge anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 61:1363–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pérez-Elvira SI, Fdz-Polanco M, Fdz-Polanco F (2011) Enhancement of the conventional anaerobic digestion of sludge: comparison of four different strategies. Water Sci Technol 64:375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pickworth B, Adams J, Panter K, Solheim OE (2006) Maximising biogas in anaerobic digestion by using engine waste heat for thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment of sludge. Water Sci Technol 54:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pilli S, Bhunia P, Yan S et al (2011) Ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge: a review. Ultrason Sonochem 18:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rashed IGA-A, Akunna J, El-Halwany MM, Atiaa AFFA (2010) Improvement in the efficiency of hydrolysis of anaerobic digestion in sewage sludge by the use of enzymes. Desalin Water Treat 21:280–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Riau V, De la Rubia MA, Pérez M et al (2012) Modelling of the temperature-phased batch anaerobic digestion of raw sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant. J Environ Sci Heal Part A 47:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rittmann BE, Lee H, Zhang H et al (2008) Full-scale application of focused-pulsed pre-treatment for improving biosolids digestion and conversion to methane. Water Sci Technol 58:1895–1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rubio-Loza LA, Noyola A (2010) Two-phase (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic thermophilic/mesophilic digestion system for producing Class A biosolids from municipal sludge. Bioresour Technol 101:576–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ruffino B, Campo G, Genon G et al (2015) Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: performance, energy and economical assessment. Bioresour Technol 175:298–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Saha M, Eskicioglu C, Sadiq R (2014) A fuzzy rule-based approach for modelling effects of bench-scale microwave pre-treatment on solubilisation and anaerobic digestion of secondary sludge. Int J Environ Eng 6:183–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Şahinkaya S (2015) Disintegration of municipal waste activated sludge by simultaneous combination of acid and ultrasonic pretreatment. Process Saf Environ Prot 93:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Şahinkaya S, Sevimli MF (2013) Sono-thermal pre-treatment of waste activated sludge before anaerobic digestion. Ultrason Sonochem 20:587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Salerno M, Lee H, Parameswaran P, Rittmann B (2009) Using a pulsed electric field as a pretreatment for improved biosolids digestion and methanogenesis. Water Environ Res 81:831–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Salsabil MR, Prorot A, Casellas M, Dagot C (2009) Pre-treatment of activated sludge: effect of sonication on aerobic and anaerobic digestibility. Chem Eng J 148:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Salsabil MR, Laurent J, Casellas M, Dagot C (2010) Techno-economic evaluation of thermal treatment, ozonation and sonication for the reduction of wastewater biomass volume before aerobic or anaerobic digestion. J Hazard Mater 174:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Shao L, Wang G, Xu H et al (2010) Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on sludge dewaterability and extracellular polymeric substances distribution in mesophilic anaerobic digestion. J Environ Sci 22:474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Shao L, Wang X, Xu H, He P (2012) Enhanced anaerobic digestion and sludge dewaterability by alkaline pretreatment and its mechanism. J Environ Sci 24:1731–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Skiadas IV, Gavala HN, Lu J, Ahring BK (2005) Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C prior to anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 52:161–166Google Scholar
  143. Song GJ, Feng XY (2011) Review of enzymatic sludge hydrolysis. J Bioremediat Biodegrad 2:130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Stuckey DC, McCarty PL (1984) The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of waste activated sludge. Water Res 18:1343–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Takashima M, Tanaka Y (2008) Comparison of thermo-oxidative treatments for the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 83:637–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tanaka S, Kobayashi T, Kamiyama K et al (1997) Effects of thermochemical pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Water Sci Technol 35:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Terashima M, Goel R, Komatsu K et al (2009) CFD simulation of mixing in anaerobic digesters. Bioresour Technol 100:2228–2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tian X, Wang C, Trzcinski AP, et al (2014) Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication–ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment. Chemosphere 140:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tian X, Trzcinski AP, Lin LL, Ng WJ (2015a) Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge. J Environ Sci 33:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tian X, Wang C, Trzcinski AP et al (2015b) Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge. J Environ Sci 29:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tomei MC, Rita S, Mininni G (2011a) Performance of sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion applied to municipal sewage sludge. J Environ Manage 92:1867–1873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tomei MC, Rita S, Mininni G (2011b) Sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: analysis of the process performance and kinetic study. N Biotechnol 29:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Valo A, Carrère H, Delgenès JP (2004) Thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatment of waste activated sludge for anaerobic digestion. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79:1197–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Vlyssides AG, Karlis PK (2004) Thermal-alkaline solubilization of waste activated sludge as a pre-treatment stage for anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 91:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wahidunnabi AK, Eskicioglu C (2014) High pressure homogenization and two-phased anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas conversion from municipal waste sludge. Water Res 66:430–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wang J, Wan W (2008) Comparison of different pretreatment methods for enriching hydrogen-producing bacteria from digested sludge. Int J Hydrog Energy 33:2934–2941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wang Q, Fujisaki K, Ohsumi Y, Ogawa HI (2001) Enhancement of dewaterability of thickened waste activated sludge by freezing and thawing treatment. J Environ Sci Heal Part A 36:1361–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wang F, Wang Y, Ji M (2005) Mechanisms and kinetics models for ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration. J Hazard Mater 123:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Weemaes M, Grootaerd H, Simoens F, Verstraete W (2000) Anaerobic digestion of ozonized biosolids. Water Res 34:2330–2336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wett B, Phothilangka P, Eladawy A (2010) Systematic comparison of mechanical and thermal sludge disintegration technologies. Waste Manag 30:1057–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wilson CA, Novak JT (2009) Hydrolysis of macromolecular components of primary and secondary wastewater sludge by thermal hydrolytic pretreatment. Water Res 43:4489–4498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Xiao B, Liu J (2009) Effects of various pretreatments on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. Chin Sci Bull 54:2038–2044Google Scholar
  163. Xie R, Xing Y, Ghani YA et al (2007) Full-scale demonstration of an ultrasonic disintegration technology in enhancing anaerobic digestion of mixed primary and thickened secondary sewage sludge. J Environ Eng Sci 6:533–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Xu G, Chen S, Shi J et al (2010) Combination treatment of ultrasound and ozone for improving solubilization and anaerobic biodegradability of waste activated sludge. J Hazard Mater 180:340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Xu J, Yuan H, Lin J, Yuan W (2014) Evaluation of thermal, thermal-alkaline, alkaline and electrochemical pretreatments on sludge to enhance anaerobic biogas production. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45:2531–2536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Xue Y, Liu H, Chen S et al (2015) Effects of thermal hydrolysis on organic matter solubilization and anaerobic digestion of high solid sludge. Chem Eng J 264:174–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yan Y, Feng L, Zhang C et al (2010) Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge solubilization and enzyme activity. Afr J Biotechnol 9:1776–1782Google Scholar
  168. Yang Q, Luo K, Li X et al (2010) Enhanced efficiency of biological excess sludge hydrolysis under anaerobic digestion by additional enzymes. Bioresour Technol 101:2924–2930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Yang Y, Tsukahara K, Yang R et al (2011) Enhancement on biodegradation and anaerobic digestion efficiency of activated sludge using a dual irradiation process. Bioresour Technol 102:10767–10771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Yang Y, Li H, Li J (2014) Variation in humic and fulvic acids during thermal sludge treatment assessed by size fractionation, elementary analysis, and spectroscopic methods. Front Environ Sci Eng 8:854–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Yeom IT, Lee KR, Ahn KH, Lee SH (2002) Effects of ozone treatment on the biodegradability of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Sci Technol 46:421–425Google Scholar
  172. Yi H, Han Y, Zhuo Y (2013) Effect of combined pretreatment of waste activated sludge for anaerobic digestion process. Proc Environ Sci 18:716–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yu G, He P, Shao L, Zhu Y (2009) Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs. J Environ Sci 21:204–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Yu J, Zheng M, Tao T et al (2013a) Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system. J Environ Sci 25:2056–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Yu S, Zhang G, Li J et al (2013b) Effect of endogenous hydrolytic enzymes pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sludge. Bioresour Technol 146:758–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Yu B, Xu J, Yuan H et al (2014) Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by electrochemical pretreatment. Fuel 130:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Zhang H, Banaszak JE, Parameswaran P et al (2009) Focused-pulsed sludge pre-treatment increases the bacterial diversity and relative abundance of acetoclastic methanogens in a full-scale anaerobic digester. Water Res 43:4517–4526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zhang S, Zhang P, Zhang G et al (2012) Enhancement of anaerobic sludge digestion by high-pressure homogenization. Bioresour Technol 118:496–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Zhen G, Lu X, Li Y-Y, Zhao Y (2014) Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion. Appl Energy 128:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zheng J, Kennedy KJ, Eskicioglu C (2009) Effect of low temperature microwave pretreatment on characteristics and mesophilic digestion of primary sludge. Environ Technol 30:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Zielewicz E, Sorys P (2008) The comparison of ultrasonic disintegration in laboratory and technical scale disintegrators. Eur Phys J Spec Top 154:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering and Environmental Biotechnology Group, Environmental Sciences Faculty and Center EULA-ChileUniversity of ConcepciónConcepciónChile

Personalised recommendations