Ultrafine particle emissions for municipal waste-to-energy plants and residential heating boilers
Most recent air quality issues related to particulate matter pollution address ultrafine (UFP < 0.1 μm) and nanoparticle (NP < 0.05 μm) size fractions and their involvement in health related issues. Consequently, large efforts have been dedicated to the evaluation of their concentration levels in ambient air, with particular reference to those situations typically representative of the highest expected human exposures (urban sites with high traffic density, indoor domestic environments, industrial workplaces). Similar investigations for assessing emissions arising from outdoor sources responsible of their origin have been mostly confined to vehicle emissions, particularly light and heavy duty diesel engines, with very limited informations for stationary combustion activities, yet considered of potential significance in the whole emissions budget. Still less attention has been attracted by some specific sources like waste to energy (WTE) plants and small scale residential heating boilers, despite their large utilization in or near heavily populated areas and their interest in public stakeholders for health related concerns. Present paper reports on the available data of UFP and NP emissions from full scale WTE plants and from small scale boilers fired with fuels typical of heat generation in the residential sector (wood pellets, light oil, natural gas), with particular reference on measurements conducted with those sampling techniques proposed recently for investigating also the contribution of the condensable fraction from semivolatile flue gas components on primary UFP concentrations and corresponding size distributions.
KeywordsUltrafine particles Nanoparticles Dilution sampling Waste-to-energy plants Residential heating boilers
The research program was conducted by LEAP (Laboratorio Energia e Ambiente Piacenza) and Politecnico di Milano with the financial support of FederAmbiente, Italian Federation of Public Environmental Services.
- Biswas P, Wu C (2005) Nanoparticles and the environment. J Air Waste Manag 55:708–746Google Scholar
- EC (2006) European commission, integrated pollution prevention and control reference document on best available techniques for waste incineration, August 2006Google Scholar
- EN (2001) Stationary source emissions—determination of low range mass concentration of dust. Manual gravimetric method. European standard 13284-1Google Scholar
- Gaegauf Ch, Wieser U, Macquat Y (2001) Field investigation of nanoparticle emissions from various biomass combustion systems. In: Nussbaumer T (ed) Proceedings of the international seminar of IEA bioenergy task 32: aerosols from biomass combustion. Zürich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Hoek G, Boogaard H, Knol A, de Hartog J, Slottje P, Ayres JG, Borm P, Brunekreef B, Donaldson K, Forastiere F, Holgate S, Kreyling WG, Nemery B, Pekkanen J, Stone V, Wichmann HE, van der Sluijs J (2010) Concentration response functions for ultrafine particles and all-cause mortality and hospital admissions: results of a European expert panel elicitation. Environ Sci Technol 44:476–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Maguhn J, Karg E, Kettrup A, Zimmermann R (2003) On-line analysis of the size distribution of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles in flue and stack gas of a municipal waste incineration plant: effect of dynamic process control measures and emission reduction devices. Environ Sci Technol 37:4761–4770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- US EPA (2004) Environmental protection agency conditional test method (CTM) 039 measurement of PM2.5 and PM10 emissions by dilution sampling (constant sampling rate procedures). CTM-039 (04_Rev 2) July 2004Google Scholar
- Wichmann HE, Peters A (2003) Epidemiological evidence of the effects of ultrafine particle exposure. In: Brown LM, Collings N, Harrison RM, Maynard AD, Maynard RL (eds) Ultrafine particles in the atmosphere. Imperial College Press, London, p 247Google Scholar