Laccase from prokaryotes: a new source for an old enzyme

  • Gursharan Singh
  • Aditya Bhalla
  • Paramjit Kaur
  • Neena Capalash
  • Prince Sharma


Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC are multi-copper-containing enzymes capable of catalyzing the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic and non phenolic aromatic compounds. The available data indicates that laccases from prokaryotes are promising biological tools for green chemistry based applications, especially in decolorization of industrial textile dye effluents which constitute a major threat to soil and ground water reservoirs worldwide. Another appropriate application of prokaryotic laccases is bio-bleaching of different kind of pulps where there is indiscriminate use of hazardous chlorine based chemicals for brightness of the paper. In recent years, researchers have shown interest in the identification and characterization of laccases from prokaryotic sources. This catalyst is not commonly reported from this kingdom, although prokaryotes have immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility. Moreover, true laccases or laccase-like enzymes exist in many gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria and actinomycetes. Corresponding genes have been identified and functionally expressed in genetically developed hosts. This review summarizes the research efforts to characterize laccases and their properties from different prokaryotic sources, including bacteria and actinomycetes.


Laccase Prokaryotes Dye decolorization Biobleaching Mediators 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gursharan Singh
    • 1
    • 5
  • Aditya Bhalla
    • 2
  • Paramjit Kaur
    • 3
  • Neena Capalash
    • 4
  • Prince Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringSouth Dakota School of Mines and TechnologyRapid CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary ParasitologyCollege of Veterinary Science (GADVASU)LudhianaIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  5. 5.Dairy and Swine Research and Development CenterAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSherbrookeCanada

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