We show that candlestick charting, the oldest known form of technical analysis, is not profitable in the Japanese equity market over the 1975–2004 period. Candlestick technical analysis, which was developed in Japan in the 1600s, is deeply intertwined with Japanese culture and is very popular in Japan. However, there is no evidence candlestick technical trading strategies add value in either the entire 30 year period, in three 10 year sub-periods or in bull or bear markets.
Candlestick Technical analysis Japan Market timing
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We thank the editor, Cheng-few Lee, and two anonymous referees for comments that have improved the paper.
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