Journal of Regulatory Economics

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 37–65 | Cite as

Voluntary development of environmental management systems: motivations and regulatory implications

Original Article


Encouraging firms to develop voluntarily more comprehensive environmental management systems (EMSs) is touted as a policy tool to augment mandatory environmental regulations. Using a unique dataset of environmental management practices of Japanese manufacturers and controlling for self-selection bias in survey responses, we find that proxies for regulatory pressures and consumer pressures are the most important factors that motivate firms toward more comprehensive EMSs. Despite the oft-claimed “voluntary” nature of EMS development, our results show that the government may have a role to play in both directly and indirectly affecting EMS development by firms.


Environmental management Japan Pollution Voluntary approaches 

JEL Classifications

Q5 L5 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Global Environmental StrategiesKanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy StudiesGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

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