Identifying the unique role of orthographic working memory in a componential model of Hong Kong kindergarteners’ Chinese written spelling
- 55 Downloads
We sought to test a componential model of Chinese written spelling, including the role of orthographic working memory (OWM), among Hong Kong kindergartners. One hundred seventeen kindergartners were recruited. OWM was measured using a visual orthographic judgment and a delayed copying task. Orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and visual–motor skills were assessed via a set of cognitive–linguistic measures. Model comparison yielded the best fitting measurement model, which consisted of four factors, namely, OWM, orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and visual–motor skills. A structural equation model indicated that 79% of the variance in Chinese spelling could be explained by these four factors. OWM was the strongest correlate of Chinese written spelling. These results highlight the fact that OWM is a predominant and distinctive correlate of Chinese written spelling acquisition.
KeywordsOrthographic working memory Orthographic knowledge Visual–motor skills Semantic knowledge Chinese written spelling
This research was funded by Social Science Panel Direct Grant from the Chinese University of Hong Kong to Catherine McBride (PI) (Project Code: 4052053) and by a GRF Grant from the Hong Kong government to Catherine McBride (PI) (Ref. Number: 14654116). The authors would like to thank the support of teachers and students of the three participating kindergartens.
- Beery, K. E. (1997). The Beery–Buktenica VMI: Developmental test of visual–motor integration with supplemental developmental tests of visual perception and motor coordination: administration, scoring, and teaching manual. Parsippany, NJ: Modern Curriculum Press.Google Scholar
- Berninger, V., & Richards, T. (2008). The writing brain: fMRI studies of idea generation, handwriting, spelling, sequential finger movements, and working memory in child writers. Padua, Italy: Italian Association of Psychology.Google Scholar
- Carlisle, J. F. (1995). Morphological awareness and early reading achievement. In L. B. Feldman (Ed.), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 189–209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Castles, A., & Nation, K. (2006). How does orthographic learning happen? In S. Andrews (Ed.), From inkmarks to ideas: Challenges and controversies about word recognition and reading (pp. 151–179). London, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W.-O., Tsang, S.-M., & Lee, S.-H. (2000). The Hong Kong test of specific learning difficulties in reading and writing. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong Education Bureau. (2006). Guide to the pre-primary curriculum. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Education Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/edu-system/preprimary-kindergarten/overview/pre-primaryguide-net_en_928.pdf.
- Leung, M. T., Law, S. P., Fung, R., Lui, H. M., & Weekes, B. S. (2012). A model of writing Chinese characters data from acquired dysgraphia and writing development. In E. Grigorenko, E. Mambrino, & D. Preiss (Eds.), Handbook of writing: A mosaic of perspectives and views (pp. 357–370). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Lin, D. (2009). Maternal mediation of writing in young children: A comparison between Hong Kong and Beijing (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hong Kong: CUHK.Google Scholar
- Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
- Qian, Y., Lee, T., & Soong, F. K. (2004). Use of tone information in continuous Cantonese speech recognition. Paper presented at Speech Prosody 2004 International Conference. March, Nara, Japan.Google Scholar
- Raven, J. (1996). Standard progressive matrices. Oxford, England: Oxford Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
- Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of psychological research online, 8(2), 23–74.Google Scholar
- Tainturier, M. J., & Rapp, B. (2001). The spelling process. In B. Rapp (Ed.), What deficits reveal about the human mind/brain: A handbook of cognitive neuropsychology (pp. 263–289). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Zhou, Y. L. (2012). An investigation of cognitive, linguistic and reading correlates in children learning Chinese and English as a first and second language (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hong Kong: CUHK.Google Scholar