Advertisement

Reading and Writing

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 371–382 | Cite as

Prosodic and phonemic awareness in children’s reading of long and short words

  • Lesly Wade-Woolley
Article

Abstract

Phonemic and prosodic awareness are both phonological processes that operate at different levels: the former at the level of the individual sound segment and the latter at the suprasegmental level across syllables. Both have been shown to be related to word reading in young readers. In this study we examine how these processes are differentially related to reading monosyllabic and multisyllabic words. Participants were 110 children in grades four and five who were asked to read monosyllabic and three- and four-syllable words matched for frequency. Phonemic awareness was assessed via a phoneme elision task; prosodic awareness was assessed by a task asking participants to identify the syllable bearing primary stress in a spoken word. Results showed that phonemic and prosodic awareness were independent predictors of short word reading, and both phonological factors made independent contributions to multisyllabic word reading, showing that phonemic and prosodic awareness are complementary but not redundant processes. Only prosodic awareness survived control for simple decoding ability in the reading of long words, suggesting that suprasegmental phonology gives added value to our understanding of reading multisyllabic words.

Keywords

Prosody Phonemic awareness Word reading Multisyllabic words 

References

  1. Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anastasiou, D., & Protopapas, A. (2014). Difficulties in lexical stress versus difficulties in segmental phonology among adolescents with dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(1), 31–50. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2014.934452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthony, J. L., & Francis, D. J. (2005). Development of phonological awareness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 255–259. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00376.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arciuli, J., Monaghan, P., & Seva, N. (2010). Learning to assign lexical stress during reading aloud: Corpus, behavioral, and computational investigations. Journal of Memory and Language, 63(2), 180–196. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2010.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Calet, N., Gutiérrez-Palma, N., Simpson, I. C., González-Trujillo, M. C., & Defior, S. (2015). Suprasegmental phonology development and reading acquisition: A longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(1), 51–71. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2014.976342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cutler, A. & Mehler, J. (1993). The periodicity bias. Journal of Phonetics, 21, 103–108.Google Scholar
  7. Cutler, A. & Norris, D. (1988). The role of strong syllables in segmentation for lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14, 113-121. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.14.1.113 Google Scholar
  8. Defior, S., Gutiérrez-Palma, N., & Cano-Marín, M. J. (2012). Prosodic awareness skills and literacy acquisition in Spanish. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 41(4), 285–294. doi: 10.1007/s10936-011-9192-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Del Campo, R., Buchanan, W. R., Abbott, R. D., & Berninger, V. W. (2014). Levels of phonology related to reading and writing in middle childhood. Reading and Writing, 28, 183–198. doi: 10.1007/s11145-014-9520-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demuth, K. (1996). The prosodic structure of early words. In J. Morgan & K. Demuth (Eds.), Signal to syntax: Bootstrapping from speech to grammar in early acquisition (pp. 171-184). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  11. Goodman, I., Libenson, A., & Wade-Woolley, L. (2010). Sensitivity to linguistic stress, phonological awareness and early reading ability in preschoolers. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 113–127. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2009.01423.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goswami, U. (2015). Sensory theories of developmental dyslexia: Three challenges for research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, 43–54. doi: 10.1038/nrn3836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goswami, U., Gerson, D., & Astruc, L. (2010). Amplitude envelope perception, phonology and prosodic sensitivity in children with developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 23(8), 995–1019. doi: 10.1007/s11145-009-9186-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goswami, U., Mead, N., Fosker, T., Huss, M., Barnes, L., & Leong, V. (2013). Impaired perception of syllable stress in children with dyslexia: A longitudinal study. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 1–17. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2013.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gough, P. B., Hoover, W. A., & Peterson, C. L. (1996). Some observations on a simple view of reading. In C. Cornoldi & J. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading comprehension difficulties: Processes and intervention (pp. 1–14). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Holliman, A. J., Wood, C., & Sheehy, K. (2012). A cross-sectional study of prosodic sensitivity and reading difficulties. Journal of Research in Reading, 35(1), 32–48. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2010.01459.x.Google Scholar
  17. Jarmulowicz, L., Hay, S. E., Taran, V. L., & Ethington, C. A. (2008). Fitting derivational morphophonology into a developmental model of reading. Reading and Writing, 21(3), 275–297. doi: 10.1007/s11145-007-9073-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jarmulowicz, L., Taran, V. L., & Hay, S. E. (2007). Third graders’ metalinguistic skills, reading skills, and stress production in derived English words. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 50, 1593–1606. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2007/107).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kearns, D. M. (2015). How elementary-age children read polysyllabic polymorphemic words. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 364–390. doi: 10.1037/a0037518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kehoe, M., & Stoel-Gammon, C. (1997). The acquisition of prosodic structure: An investigation of current accounts of children’s prosodic development. Language, 73(1), 113–144. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kirby, J. R., & Savage, R. S. (2008). Can the simple view deal with the complexities of reading? Literacy, 42(2), 75–82. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-4369.2008.00487.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F. W., & Carter, B. J. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Perfetti, C. A., Beck, I., Bell, L. C., & Hughes, C. (1987). Phonemic knowledge and learning to read are reciprocal: A longitudinal study of first-grade children. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 33, 283–319. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23086537
  24. Perry, C., Ziegler, J. C., & Zorzi, M. (2010). Beyond single syllables: Large-scale modeling of reading aloud with the Connectionist Dual Process (CDP++) model. Cognitive Psychology, 61(2), 106–151. doi: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2010.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ševa, N., Monaghan, P., & Arciuli, J. (2009). Stressing what is important: Orthographic cues and lexical stress assignment. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 22(3), 237–249. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2008.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Steedman, M. (1996). The role of prosody and semantics in the acquisition of syntax. In J. Morgan and K. Demuth (Eds.), Signal to syntax: Bootstrapping from Speech to grammar in early acquisition (pp. 331–342). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  27. Treiman, R. (1993). Beginning to spell: A study of first-grade children. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Wade-Woolley, L. & Heggie, L. (in press). Linguistic stress and reading: More than phonological awareness. In J. Thomson & L. Jarmulowicz (Eds.) Linguistic rhythm and literacy. New York: John Benjamins Publishers.Google Scholar
  29. Wade-Woolley, L., & Heggie, L. (2015). Implicit knowledge of word stress and derivational morphology guides skilled readers’ decoding of multisyllabic words. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(1), 21–30. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2014.947647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wade-Woolley, L., & Wood, C. (2006). Editorial: Prosodic sensitivity and reading development. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(3), 253–257. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00306.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1999). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Austin, TX: PRO-ED Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  32. Wang, M., & Arciuli, J. (2015). Introduction to the special issue. Phonology beyond phonemes: Contributions of suprasegmental information to reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(1), 1–4. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2014.976790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Whalley, K., & Hansen, J. (2006). The role of prosodic sensitivity in children’s reading development. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(3), 288–303. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00309.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wood, C. P., Wade-Woolley, L., & Holliman, A. J. (2009). Phonological awareness: Beyond phonemes. In C. P. Wood & V. Connelly (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on reading and spelling (pp. 1–23). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Woodcock, R. W. (1987). Woodcock reading mastery tests–revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  36. Zeno, S. M., Ivens, S. H., Millard, R. T., & Duvvuri, R. (1995). The educator’s word frequency guide. Brewster, NY: Touchstone Applied Science Associates.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication Sciences and DisordersUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations