Reading and Writing

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 665–684 | Cite as

Long-term outcome of the early identification and intervention of reading disabilities



This study examined the longitudinal effects of an early literacy intervention in Kindergarten. A group of children completed reading and cognitive measures between Kindergarten (5–6 years old) and Grade 7 (12–13 years old). Our results showed that 22 % of children were identified as at-risk for reading deficits in Kindergarten, but only 6 % of children had reading difficulties in Grade 7. In Kindergarten, at-risk groups scored lower than not-at-risk groups on measures of word and letter recognition, phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, and language. We also examined a small group of children who were not-at-risk in Kindergarten, but had a reading disability in Grade 7; these children did not obtain lower scores than average readers on any of our Kindergarten measures. Finally, we illustrated that the trajectory of word reading skills was generally stable, such that most children scored within the average range between Grade 1 and 7. Our results provide evidence for the long-term positive outcomes of early literacy instruction.


Early identification Intervention Reading disability Children Longitudinal Persistent reading deficits 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education, Faculty of EducationUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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