The effect of experimental conditions on methane hydrate formation by the use of single and dual impellers

Abstract

Natural gas hydrates (NGH) are proposed as gas storage and transportation media owing to their high gas content and long-term stability of hydrate crystal structure at common refrigeration temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Technically feasible, cost efficient hydrate production is one of the crucial items of the whole chain of storage and transportation of gas by means of NGH technology. This study investigates the effects of types and number of impellers and baffles. Single impeller experiments showed that hydrate formation rates of rushton turbine (RT) experiments are always higher than hydrate formation rates of pitched blade turbines upward pumping (PBTU) experiments for all types of baffles but on the other side RT experiments consume more energy. Hydrate yield values are always higher in the RT experiments showing that although the duration of hydrate formation process lasts less compared to PBTU ones, the amount of water that is converted to gas hydrates is more in RT experiments. The same results observed also in dual impeller experiments with the objection that values were closer. In single impeller experiments only PBTU experiments formed hydrates for 3 h while in dual experiments formed PBTU with full baffle and RT with no baffle experiments indicating a serious heat transfer limitations for the other experiments. It should be mentioned that PBT is the same with PBTU since all mixed flow experiments worked in upward pumping.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. 1.

    Sloan ED Jr (1998) Clathrate hydrates of natural gases, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Sloan ED Jr, Koh C (2007) Clathrate hydrates of natural gases. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Makogon IUrF, Cieslewicz W (1981) Hydrates of natural gas. Penn Well Books Tulsa, Oklahoma

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Ripmeester JA, Tse JS, Ratcliffe CI, Powell BM (1987) A new clathratehydrate structure. Nature 325:135–136

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sum AK, Burruss RC, Sloan ED (1997) Measurement of clathrate hydrates via Raman spectroscopy. J Phys Chem B 101:7371–7377

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Mao WL, Goncharov AF, Struzhkin VV, Guo Q, Hu J, Shu J, Hemley RJ, Somayazulu M, Zhao Y (2002) Hydrogen clusters in clathrate hydrate. Science 297:2247–2249

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kumar R, Linga P, Moudrakovski I, Ripmeester JA, Englezos P (2008) Structure and kinetics of gas hydrates from methane/ethane/propane mixtures relevant to the design of natural gas hydrate storage and transport facilities. AIChE 54:2132–2144

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kvenvolden K (2003) Natural gas hydrate: background and history of discovery. In: Max M (ed) Natural gas hydrate. Springer, Netherlands, pp 9–16

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Carson DB, Katz DL (1942) Natural gas hydrates. Trans AIME 146:150–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Zhanga J, Wanga Z, Liub S, Zhangc W, Yua J, Suna B (2019) Prediction of hydrate deposition in pipelines to improve gas transportation efficiency and safety. Appl Energy 253:113521

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Zhang J, Wang Z, Duan W, Fu W, Sun B, Sun JS, Tong S (2020) Real-time estimation and management of hydrate plugging risk during deepwater gas well testing. SPE 25(6):3250–3264

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Yang W, Wei G, Xie W, Jin H, Zeng F, Su N, Sun A, Shen MS, Wu JS (2020) Hydrocarbon accumulation and exploration prospect of mound-shoal complexes on the platform margin of the fourth member of Sinian Dengying Formation in the east of Mianzhu-Changning intracratonic rift Sichuan Basin, SW China. Pet Explor Dev 47(6):1262–1274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Shahnazar S, Hasan N (2014) Gas hydrate formation condition: review on experimental and modeling approaches. Fluid Phase Equilib 379:72–85

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ansari F, Soofivand F, Salavati-Niasari M (2015) Utilizing maleic acid as a novel fuel for synthesis of PbFe12O19 nanoceramics via sol–gel auto-combustion route. Mater Charact 103:11–17

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Merey S, Longinos SN (2008) The role od natural gas hydrate during natural gas transportation. Omer HalisdemirUniv J EngSci 7(2):937–953

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Englezos P, Lee JD (2005) Gas hydrates: a cleaner source of energy and opportunity for innovative technologies. Korean J Chem Eng 22:671–681

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Klauda JB, Sandler SI (2005) Global distribution of methane hydrate in ocean sediment. Energy Fuels 19:459–470

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Wang Z, Zhang J, Sun B, Chen L, Zhao Y, Fu W (2017) A new hydrate deposition prediction model for gas-dominated systems with free water. Chem Eng Sci 163:145–154

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Sun ZG, Wang R, Ma R, Guo K, Fan S (2003) Natural gas storage in hydrates with the presence of promoters. Energy Convers Manag 44:2733–2742

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Masoudi R, Tohidi B (2005) Gas hydrate production technology for natural gas storage and transportation and CO2 sequestration. In: SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, 12–15 March, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kingdom of Bahrain

  21. 21.

    Ogata K, Hashimoto S, Sugahara T, Moritoki M, Sato H, Ohgaki K (2008) Storage capacity of hydrogen in tetrahydrofuran hydrate. ChemEngSci 63:5714–5718

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Nagata T, Tajima H, Yamasaki A, Kiyono F, Abe Y (2009) An analysis of gas separation processes of HFC-134a from gaseous mixtures with nitrogen—Comparison of two types of gas separation methods, liquefaction and hydrate-based methods, in terms of the equilibrium recovery ratio. Sep Purif Technol 64:351–356

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Eslamimanesh A, Mohammadi AH, Richon D, Naidoo P, Ramjugernath D (2012) Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: a review of experimental studies. J ChemThermodyn 46:62–71

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rajnauth JJ, Barrufet M, Falcone G (2010) Potential industry applications using gas hydrate technology. In: Trinidad and Tobago Energy Resources Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers: Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2010

  25. 25.

    Li X-S, Xia Z-M, Chen Z-Y, Wu H-J (2011) Precombustion capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen with a one-stage hydrate/ membrane process in the presence of tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB). Energy Fuels 25:1302–1309

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kang SP, Lee J, Seo Y (2013) Pre-combustion capture of CO2 by gas hydrate formation in silica gel pore structure. J ChemEng 218:126–132

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Mehta AP, Hebert PB, Cadena R, Weatherman JP (2003) Fulfilling the promise of low-dosage hydrate inhibitors: journey from academic curiosity to successful field implementation. Offshore Technology Conference, 6–9 May, Houston, Texas, 2003

  28. 28.

    Lang X, Fan S, Wang Y (2010) Intensification of methane and hydrogen storage in clathrate hydrate and future prospect. J Nat Gas Chem 19:203–209

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Rossi F, Filipponi M, Castellani B (2012) Investigation on a novel raector for gas hydrate production. Appl Energy 99:167–172

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Kanda H (2006) Economic study on natural gas transportation with natural gas hydrate (NGH) pellets. In: Proceeding of the 23rd world gas conference, Amsterdam, 2006

  31. 31.

    Rossi F, Cotana F, Castellani B, Filipponi M (2010) Nuovo reattore sperimentale per la produzione di gas idrati. In: Proceedings of the X National Congress CIRIAF, Perugia, 2010

  32. 32.

    Hao W, Wang J, Fan S, Wenbin H (2007) Study on methane hydration process in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. Energy Convers Manag 48:954–960

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Longinos SN, Parlaktuna M (2020) The effect of experimental conditions on methane (95%)-propane (5%) hydrate formation. Energies 13:6710. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246710

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Longinos SN, Parlaktuna M (2021) Kinetic analysis of methane-propane hydrate formation by the use of different impellers. ACS Omega. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05615

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Lee BI, Kesler MG (1975) Generalized thermodynamic correlation based on three parameter corresponding states. AIChE 21:510–527

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Stoots CM, Calabrese RV (1995) Mean velocity field relative to a Rushton turbine blade. AIChE 41:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690410102

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Ameur H, Kamla Y, Sahel D (2016) CFD simulations of mixing characteristics of radial impellers in cylindrical reactors. ChemistrySelect 1:2548–2551

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Youcefi S, Bouzit M, Ameur H, Kamla Y, Youcefi A (2013) Effect of some design parameters on the flow fields and power consumption in a vessel stirred by a Rushton turbine. Chem Process Eng 34(2):293–307. https://doi.org/10.2478/cpe-2013-0024

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Yoon HS, Hill DF, Balachandar S, Adrian RJ, Ha MY (2005) Reynolds number scaling of flowin a Rushton turbine stirred tank. Part I—Mean flow, circular jet and tip vortex scaling. ChemEngSci 60:3169–3183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2004.12.039

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Houari A, Mohamed B, Abdellah G (2015) Numerical study of the performance of multistage Scaba 6SRGT impellers for the agitation of yield stress fluids in cylindrical tanks. J Hydrodyn 27(3):436–442

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Mr Ozgur Ilker Coban for his assistance in the process of experiments.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sotirios Nik Longinos.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 6406 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Longinos, S.N., Parlaktuna, M. The effect of experimental conditions on methane hydrate formation by the use of single and dual impellers. Reac Kinet Mech Cat (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11144-021-01937-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Natural gas hydrates
  • Rate of hydrate formation
  • Induction time
  • Radial flow