Copper-grafted Zagrousian natural asphalt sulfonate (Cu-Zagronas): as a novel heterogeneous carbonious nanocatalyst for the synthesis of anilines and phenols

Abstract

In this study, taking into account the principles of green chemistry and extension of economical and industrials catalysts (as the heart of the chemical processes), copper-grafted zagrosian natural asphalt sulfonate (Cu-Zagronas) was synthesized, identified and introduced as a new efficient heterogeneous nanocatalyst for the synthesis of phenols and anilines. For preparation of the Cu-Zagronas nanocatalyst, we transform Iranian natural asphalt as a green, cheap and available mineral material into a support for organic transformations. The Cu-Zagronas nanocatalyst was characterized by various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma and N2 adsorption–desorption measurement. Some advantages of this heterogeneous nanocatalyst include: simple preparation from commercially available materials, simple operation, high catalytic activity, high yields, easy work-up and recyclability of the catalyst up to 6 times without significant loss in catalytic activity.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the Iranian National Science Foundation (INSF, Grant No. 97017223), and Ilam University for their financial support.

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Correspondence to Mohammad Soleiman-Beigi.

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Kohzadi, H., Soleiman-Beigi, M. Copper-grafted Zagrousian natural asphalt sulfonate (Cu-Zagronas): as a novel heterogeneous carbonious nanocatalyst for the synthesis of anilines and phenols. Reac Kinet Mech Cat 132, 261–277 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11144-020-01918-1

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Keyword

  • Amines
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Natural
  • Phenols