Direct amination of toluene to toluidine with hydroxylamine over CuO–V2O5/Al2O3 catalysts
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A series of CuO–V2O5/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared and characterized by various techniques such as XRF, BET, XPS and XRD. These catalysts were used for liquid-phase amination of toluene to toluidines. It was found that adding copper species to V2O5/Al2O3 catalyst showed a peculiar behavior, maintaining a high activity toward toluene amination. An optimum CuO content appeared at 1.6 wt% with a CuO/V2O5 molar ratio of 0.25. More than 60% total yield of toluidines was obtained over 1.6%CuO–15%V2O5/Al2O3 catalyst under optimized conditions. Catalyst characterizations revealed that the addition of copper improved the formation of V5+ species, thus enhancing the activity of the catalyst.
KeywordsToluene Hydroxylamine Amination Toluidine Copper Vanadium
The authors are grateful for the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 20876033, 20906018, 20706011, 20636030) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of Hebei Province.
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