Studies have shown that spirituality plays an important role in enhancing the quality of life of stroke survivors and their caregivers. Spirituality has been associated with positive patient and caregiver outcomes, so a valid, reliable measure of spirituality is important. It has not been tested with stroke survivors and their caregivers, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spiritual Religious and Personal Belief (WHOQOL-SRPB) scale for stroke survivors and their caregivers.
In this cross-sectional study, 414 stroke survivors at 10 rehabilitation hospitals and 244 caregivers completed the WHOQOL-SRPB. The WHOQOL-SRPB’s factorial structure was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), criterion-related validity was evaluated with the WHOQOL-BREF, and internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s α and ordinal α.
The CFA results supported the hypothesized eight-factor structure. The stroke survivor and the caregiver versions of the model both had excellent fit indices. The factor loadings for the final models were strong: 0.78–0.98 for stroke survivors and caregivers (p < 0.001). The criterion-related validity for the WHOQOL-SRPB showed weak to moderate correlations with all the WHOQOL-BREF dimensions. Both ordinal α and Cronbach’s α had values more than 0.70.
The WHOQOL-SRPB scale is a valid, reliable instrument for measuring spirituality in stroke survivors and caregivers. Given the importance of spirituality for stroke survivors and caregivers, the WHOQOL-SRPB scale is recommended as an important tool for clinical practice and research.
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We thank Dr. Sofia Colaceci for her contribution during the review process of this paper.
This study was funded by the Center of Excellence for Nursing Scholarship, Rome, Italy.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The Institutional Review Board at all the hospitals where stroke survivors and caregivers were enrolled approved this study. All the stroke survivors and caregivers provided written informed consent. All procedures performed in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the Ethical Standards of the Institutional and/or National Research Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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Pucciarelli, G., Årestedt, K., Simeone, S. et al. Psychometric characteristics of the WHOQOL-SRPB Scale in a population of stroke survivors and caregivers. Qual Life Res 29, 1973–1985 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02446-0