Quality of Life Research

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1267–1271 | Cite as

The psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire—translation and cross-cultural validation in Croatia

Brief Communication



To perform a translation and validation of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ) in the Croatian cultural context.


A total of 262 subjects (34 % males) aged 18–30 years (mean age 22.7 ± 2.6) were included. The questionnaire included the PIDAQ, a self-assessment of satisfaction with dental aesthetics, a self-perceived dental treatment need assessment, self-reported malocclusion, an aesthetic component of index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN AC) and an oral health impact profile (OHIP-14 CRO). The subjects’ orthodontic treatment needs were assessed by a dentist using the dental health and aesthetic component of the IOTN. The internal consistency, test–retest reliability, validity and responsiveness were assessed. Little’s Irregularity index was used to correlate the amount of resolution of dental crowding by orthodontic treatment with the change in PIDAQ domains.


The domains of the Croatian version of the PIDAQ showed satisfactory internal consistency (α ranging from 0.79 to 0.95) and high test–retest reliability (r > 0.85). The significant association between the PIDAQ domains and self-reported satisfaction with teeth appearance, IOTN AC and OHIP-14 CRO (p < 0.001) confirmed the convergent validity. The domains were able to detect differences in the subjects’ psychosocial impact related to orthodontic treatment that improved dental aesthetics in responsiveness testing (p < 0.001).


The Croatian version of the PIDAQ demonstrated good psychometric properties, similar to those of the original.


Quality of life Psychometrics Reliability Validity Dental aesthetics Malocclusion 


  1. 1.
    Tsakos, G. (2008). Combining normative and psychosocial perceptions for assessing orthodontic treatment needs. Journal of Dental Education, 72(8), 876–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kolawole, K. A., Ayeni, O. O., & Osiatuma, V. I. (2012). Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics among university undergraduates. International Orthodontics, 10(1), 96–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Onyeaso, C. O., & Sanu, O. O. (2005). Perception of personal dental appearance in Nigerian adolescents. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 127(6), 700–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seehra, J., Fleming, P. S., Newton, T., & DiBiase, A. T. (2011). Bullying in orthodontic patients and its relationship to malocclusion, self-esteem and oral health-related quality of life. Journal of Orthodontics, 38(4), 247–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johansson, V., Axtelius, B., Söderfeldt, B., Sampogna, F., Paulander, J., & Sondell, K. (2010). Multivariate analysis of patient financial systems and oral health–related quality of life. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 38(5), 436–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bos, A., Hoogstraten, J., & Prahl-Andersen, B. (2003). Expectations of treatment and satisfaction with dentofacial appearance in orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 123(2), 127–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kalha, A. S. (2011). Evidence that of orthodontics improves long term psychological well being lacking. Evidence Based Dentistry, 12(4), 108–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klages, U., Claus, N., Wehrbein, H., & Zentner, A. (2006). Development of a questionnaire for assessment of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in young adults. European Journal of Orthodontics, 28(2), 103–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sardenberg, F., Oliveira, A. C., Paiva, S. M., Auad, S. M., & Vale, M. P. (2011). Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetic questionnaire. European Journal of Orthodontics, 33(3), 270–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Montiel-Company, J. M., Bellot-Arcis, C., & Almerich-Silla, J. M. (2013). Validation of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (Pidaq) in Spanish adolescents. Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal, 18(1), e168–e173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lin, H., Quan, C., Guo, C., Zhou, C., Wang, Y., & Bao, B. (2013). Translation and validation of the Chinese version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire. European Journal of Orthodontics, 35(3), 354–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Espeland, L. V., & Stenvik, A. (1991). Perception of personal dental appearance in young adults: Relationship between occlusion, awareness, and satisfaction. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 100(3), 234–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brook, P. H., & Shaw, W. C. (1989). The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. European Journal of Orthodontics, 11(3), 309–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rener-Sitar, K., Petricevic, N., Celebic, A., & Marion, L. (2008). Psychometric properties of Croatian and Slovenian short form of oral health impact profile questionnaires. Croatian Medical Journal, 49(4), 536–544.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Little, R. M. (1975). The irregularity index: A quantitative score of mandibular anterior alignment. American Journal of Orthodontics, 68(5), 554–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dahong, X., Xiangrong, C., Ying, L., Yusong, L., Ying, G., & Yan, S. (2013). Effect of incisor position on the self-perceived psychosocial impacts of malocclusion among Chinese young adults. Angle Orthodontist, 83(4), 622–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Paula, D. F, Jr., Silva, É. T., Campos, A. C., Nuñez, M. O., & Leles, C. R. (2011). Effect of anterior teeth display during smiling on the self-perceived impacts of malocclusion in adolescents. Angle Orthodontist, 81(3), 540–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gazit-Rappaport, T., Haisraeli-Shalish, M., & Gazit, E. (2010). Psychosocial reward of orthodontic treatment in adult patients. European Journal of Orthodontics, 32(4), 441–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen, P., Yu, S., & Zhu, G. (2012). The psychosocial impacts of implantation on the dental aesthetics of missing anterior teeth patients. British Dental Journal, 213(11), E20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stjepan Spalj
    • 1
  • Vlatka Lajnert
    • 2
  • Luida Ivankovic
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of MedicineUniversity of RijekaRijekaCroatia
  2. 2.Department of Prosthodontics, School of MedicineUniversity of RijekaRijekaCroatia
  3. 3.Dental PracticeSplitCroatia

Personalised recommendations