Advertisement

Quality of Life Research

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1061–1069 | Cite as

Cognitive motivational systems and life satisfaction in serious and persistent mental illness

  • Iruma Bello
  • John J. Steffen
  • Kentaro Hayashi
Article

Abstract

Purpose

Levels of life satisfaction are commonly used to measure attainment of recovery in serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI). There is some controversy about what constitutes life satisfaction and its measurement. This study explored the influence of cognitive motivational systems upon estimations of life satisfaction using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Methods

One hundred and ninety participants diagnosed with SPMI from Hawai’i’s public mental health system completed instruments measuring cognitive motivational systems (e.g., behavioral activation and inhibition), psychological distress, and life satisfaction (e.g., quality of life and subjective well-being).

Results

Exploratory models indicated that higher behavioral inhibition or psychological distress predicts lower levels of life satisfaction. However, higher levels of behavioral activation predict higher levels of life satisfaction. There was no support for psychological distress as a mediator between cognitive motivational systems and life satisfaction.

Conclusions

Overall, cognitive motivational systems accounted for 15% of the variance in life satisfaction while psychological distress accounted for 29%. This suggests the importance of considering cognitive schemas and motivation beyond symptomatology when examining life satisfaction.

Keywords

Severe mental illness Quality of life Behavioral activation Behavioral inhibition 

Abbreviations

SPMI

Serious and persistent mental illness

SEM

Structural equation modeling

QOL

Quality of life

SWB

Subjective well-being

BAS

Behavioral activation system

BIS

Behavioral inhibition system

CMHC

Community mental health center

MHI

Mental health inventory

CFI

Comparative fit index

RMSEA

Root mean square error of approximation

SD

Standard deviation

BAS-FS

Behavioral activation system fun seeking scale

BAS-RR

Behavioral activation system reward responsiveness scale

BAS-D

Behavioral activation system drive scale

MHI-D

Mental health inventory depression scale

MHI-LC

Mental health inventory loss of emotional control scale

MHI-A

Mental health inventory anxiety scale

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the State of Hawai’i’s Adult Mental Health Division and the Mental Health Services Research, Evaluation and Training Center for funding the project.

References

  1. 1.
    Jans, L., Stoddard, S., & Kraus, L. (2004). Chartbook on mental health and disability in the United States. An info use report. Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atkinson, M., Zibin, S., & Chuang, H. (1997). Characterizing quality of life among patients with chronic mental illness: A critical examination of the self-report methodology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 99–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jacobson, N., & Greenley, D. (2001). What is recovery? A conceptual model and explication. Psychiatric Services, 52(4), 482–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anthony, W. A. (2000). A recovery-oriented service system: Setting some system level standards. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 24(2), 159–168.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bow-Thomas, C., Velligan, D. I., Miller, A. L., & Olsen, J. (1999). Predicting quality of life from symptomatology in schizophrenia at exacerbation and stabilization. Psychiatric Research, 86, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Auquier, P., Simeoni, M. C., Sapin, C., Reine, G., Aghababian, V., Cramer, J., et al. (2003). Development and validation of a patient-based health-related quality of life questionnaire in schizophrenia: The S-QoL. Schizophrenia Research, 63(1–2), 137–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmidt, K., Staupendahl, A., & Vollmoeller, W. (2004). Quality of life of schizophrenic psychiatric outpatients as a criterion for treatment planning in psychiatric institutions. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50(3), 262–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kentros, M. K., Terkelsen, K., Hull, J., Smith, T. E., & Goodman, M. (1997). The relationship between personality and quality of life in persons with schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia. Quality of Life Research, 6, 118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hansson, L., Eklund, M., & Bengtsson-Tops, A. (2001). The relationship of personality dimensions as measured by the temperament and character inventory and quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder living in the community. Quality of Life Research, 10, 133–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological Science, 6(1), 10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2001). Re-examining the general positivity model of subjective well-being: The discrepancy between specific and global domain satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 69(4), 641–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Young, J. E., Kloskso, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affect responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heubeck, B. G., Wilkinson, R. B., & Cologon, J. (1998). A second look at Carver and White’s (1994) BIS/BAS scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 785–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campbell-Sills, L., Liverant, G. I., & Brown, T. A. (2004). Psychometric evaluations of the behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation scales in a large sample of outpatients with anxiety and mood disorder. Psychological Assessment, 16(3), 244–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Behavioral activation and inhibition in everyday life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1135–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hansson, L. (2006). Determinants of quality of life in people with severe mental illness. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113, 46–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huppert, J. D., Weiss, K. A., Lim, R., Pratt, S., & Smith, T. E. (2001). Quality of life in schizophrenia: contributions of anxiety and depression. Schizophrenia Research, 51, 171–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Veit, C. T., & Ware, J. E. (1983). The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 730–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., Henderson, A. S., Jacomb, P. A., Korten, A. E., & Rodgers, B. (1999). Using the BIS/BAS scale to measure behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation: Factor structure, validity and norms in a large community sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greenley, J. R., Greenberg, J. S., & Brown, R. (1997). Measuring quality of life: A new and practical survey instrument. Social Work, 42(3), 244–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (1993). Testing structural equation models. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. N. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structural analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vitters, J., & Nilsen, F. (2002). The conceptual and relational structure of subjective well-being, neuroticism, and extraversion: Once again, neuroticism is the important predictor of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 57, 89–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iruma Bello
    • 1
    • 2
  • John J. Steffen
    • 3
  • Kentaro Hayashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Hawai’i at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Social Science Research InstituteUniversity of Hawai’i at ManoaManoa HonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations