Psychometric properties of the Spanish form of the schedule for meaning in life evaluation (SMiLE)
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The objective of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the SMiLE (Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation). The SMiLE is a respondent-generated instrument: respondents are first asked to list three to seven areas, which provide meaning to their lives, and then to rate their current satisfaction with the listed areas, as well as the individual importance of each one. Indices of total weighting (IoW), total satisfaction (IoS), and total weighted satisfaction (IoWS) are calculated.
Two hundred and fifty University students responded to the Spanish version of the SMiLE, as well as to instruments for measuring self-esteem, quality of life, depression, and anxiety.
The Cronbach alphas (α = 0.61 for IoS and α = 0.41 for IoW) and test–retest correlations were comparable to those found in the initial validation of the instrument (IoS: r = 0.55; IoW: r = 0.61). The SMiLE showed positive correlations with self-esteem (r = 0.28, P < 0.05 for IoS) and the mental dimension of the quality of life scale (r = 0.31, P < 0.05 for IoS), while negative correlations were observed with depression (r = −0.23, P < 0.01) and anxiety (r = −0.17, P < 0.05).
The results support the validity of the Spanish version of the SMiLE as an instrument for assessing meaning in life.
KeywordsAssessment scales Instrumental study Meaning in life Personal satisfaction Quality of life
Death anxiety inventory-revised
Index of satisfaction
Index of weighting
Index of weighted satisfaction or total SMiLE index
Kuwait University anxiety scale
Meaning in life
Self-rating depression scale
Schedule for the evaluation of individual quality of life-direct weighting
- SF-12 health survey
Short form-12 health survey
Schedule for meaning in life evaluation
Rosenberg self-esteem scale
The authors are grateful to Dr. Martin Fegg of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Palliative Medicine in Munich for his invaluable help and suggestions. We also thank Andrés Aristayeta for his contribution to the fieldwork. This study was funded by Col.legi Oficial d’Infermeria de Barcelona (COIB), grant number: PR 5177/09.
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