Quality of Life Research

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 759–762 | Cite as

Psychometric properties of the Spanish form of the schedule for meaning in life evaluation (SMiLE)

  • Cristina Monforte-Royo
  • Joaquín Tomás–Sábado
  • Christian Villavicencio-Chávez
  • Albert Balaguer
Brief Communication



The objective of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the SMiLE (Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation). The SMiLE is a respondent-generated instrument: respondents are first asked to list three to seven areas, which provide meaning to their lives, and then to rate their current satisfaction with the listed areas, as well as the individual importance of each one. Indices of total weighting (IoW), total satisfaction (IoS), and total weighted satisfaction (IoWS) are calculated.


Two hundred and fifty University students responded to the Spanish version of the SMiLE, as well as to instruments for measuring self-esteem, quality of life, depression, and anxiety.


The Cronbach alphas (α = 0.61 for IoS and α = 0.41 for IoW) and test–retest correlations were comparable to those found in the initial validation of the instrument (IoS: r = 0.55; IoW: r = 0.61). The SMiLE showed positive correlations with self-esteem (r = 0.28, P < 0.05 for IoS) and the mental dimension of the quality of life scale (r = 0.31, P < 0.05 for IoS), while negative correlations were observed with depression (r = −0.23, P < 0.01) and anxiety (r = −0.17, P < 0.05).


The results support the validity of the Spanish version of the SMiLE as an instrument for assessing meaning in life.


Assessment scales Instrumental study Meaning in life Personal satisfaction Quality of life 



Death anxiety inventory-revised


Index of satisfaction


Index of weighting


Index of weighted satisfaction or total SMiLE index


Kuwait University anxiety scale


Mental dimension


Meaning in life


Physical dimension


Standard deviation


Self-rating depression scale


Schedule for the evaluation of individual quality of life-direct weighting

SF-12 health survey

Short form-12 health survey


Schedule for meaning in life evaluation


Rosenberg self-esteem scale



The authors are grateful to Dr. Martin Fegg of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Palliative Medicine in Munich for his invaluable help and suggestions. We also thank Andrés Aristayeta for his contribution to the fieldwork. This study was funded by Col.legi Oficial d’Infermeria de Barcelona (COIB), grant number: PR 5177/09.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Monforte-Royo
    • 1
    • 4
  • Joaquín Tomás–Sábado
    • 2
  • Christian Villavicencio-Chávez
    • 3
    • 4
  • Albert Balaguer
    • 5
  1. 1.Departament d’Infermeria, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la SalutUniversitat Internacional de CatalunyaSant Cugat del Vallés (Barcelona)Spain
  2. 2.Escola Universitària d’Infermera GimbernatUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Institut Català d’OncologiaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Centre de Recerca i Estudis Bioètics, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la SalutUniversitat Internacional de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Centre de Recerca i Estudis Bioètics, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la SalutUniversitat Internacional de CatalunyaSant Cugat del Vallés (Barcelona)Spain

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