The water exercise improves health-related quality of life of frail elderly people at day service facility
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of water exercise at a day service facility and the effects of water exercise frequency on health-related quality of life (HRQL).
Participants (n = 30) were randomly separated into three groups: two indicating exercise frequency, at once-weekly or twice-weekly, and a control group. One-hour exercise intervention sessions were carried out once or twice a week, accordingly, for 24 weeks. The water exercise session comprised a warm-up on land, activities of daily living (ADL) exercises, stretching, strength training, and relaxation in water. HRQL was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and ADL disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure.
Significant differences were found between pre- and 6 months in both the once- and twice-weekly groups in HRQL (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found among pre-, 3 months, and 6 months. The effect size between the once and twice groups was moderate in both the physical component summary (0.72) and mental component summary (0.75) at 3 months. ADL disability shows significant correlation with HRQL.
Water exercise intervention at a day service facility improved participants’ HRQL for 6 months by improving exercise habits and ADL disability. Furthermore, the HRQL change differed according to exercise frequency: twice-weekly exercise showed more rapid improvement than once-weekly.
KeywordsWater exercise intervention Health-related quality of life Activities of daily living disability Exercise frequency Day service facility
Health-related quality of life
Activities of daily living
The public nursing-care insurance system
The Medical Outcomes Survey Short form-36
Functional Independence Measure
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Role limitations due to physical health
Physical component summary
Role limitations due to emotional health
Mental component summary
Body mass index
Rating of perceived exertion scale
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