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Quality of Life Research

, Volume 16, Issue 10, pp 1577–1585 | Cite as

The water exercise improves health-related quality of life of frail elderly people at day service facility

  • Daisuke Sato
  • Koichi Kaneda
  • Hitoshi Wakabayashi
  • Takeo Nomura
Article

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of water exercise at a day service facility and the effects of water exercise frequency on health-related quality of life (HRQL).

Methods

Participants (n = 30) were randomly separated into three groups: two indicating exercise frequency, at once-weekly or twice-weekly, and a control group. One-hour exercise intervention sessions were carried out once or twice a week, accordingly, for 24 weeks. The water exercise session comprised a warm-up on land, activities of daily living (ADL) exercises, stretching, strength training, and relaxation in water. HRQL was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and ADL disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure.

Results

Significant differences were found between pre- and 6 months in both the once- and twice-weekly groups in HRQL (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found among pre-, 3 months, and 6 months. The effect size between the once and twice groups was moderate in both the physical component summary (0.72) and mental component summary (0.75) at 3 months. ADL disability shows significant correlation with HRQL.

Conclusion

Water exercise intervention at a day service facility improved participants’ HRQL for 6 months by improving exercise habits and ADL disability. Furthermore, the HRQL change differed according to exercise frequency: twice-weekly exercise showed more rapid improvement than once-weekly.

Keywords

Water exercise intervention Health-related quality of life Activities of daily living disability Exercise frequency Day service facility 

Abbreviations

HRQL

Health-related quality of life

ADL

Activities of daily living

PNCIS

The public nursing-care insurance system

SF-36

The Medical Outcomes Survey Short form-36

FIM

Functional Independence Measure

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

FM

Fibromyalgia

PF

Physical functioning

RP

Role limitations due to physical health

BP

Bodily pain

GH

General health

PCS

Physical component summary

VT

Vitality

SF

Social functioning

RE

Role limitations due to emotional health

MH

Mental health

MCS

Mental component summary

BMI

Body mass index

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion scale

SD

Standard deviation

ES

Effect size

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daisuke Sato
    • 1
    • 2
  • Koichi Kaneda
    • 1
  • Hitoshi Wakabayashi
    • 3
  • Takeo Nomura
    • 1
  1. 1.Doctoral Program in Health and Sport ScienceUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Comprehensive Human ScienceUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of DesignKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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