Quality of life and its predictors among Pakistani head of household in district Abbottabad, Pakistan

Abstract

This study aimed to measure the quality of life (QOL) and its predictors among male and female heads of household in Pakistan. A population-based cross-sectional study in all 52 Union Councils of District Abbottabad, Pakistan was conducted from March 2015 to August 2015. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to enroll 747 head of household from the study sample. Quality of life was assessed through standardized and validated Urdu version of World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) and Social capital was assessed through World Bank Social Capital Questionnaire (SC-IQ). Descriptive and inferential analyses were done to measure the levels of QOL domains. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were developed to explore the association between the presence of a better QOL domain and other socio-demographic factors among heads of household in Pakistan. Mean scores (± standard deviation) for physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental health domain were 64.21 ± 15.37, 67.75 ± 14.76, 72.37 ± 16.74 and 55.50 ± 14.56 respectively among the Pakistani heads of households. Overall QOL score for all domains was 64.96 ± 12.07. Males had higher score in psychological, social and environmental domains than female heads (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, we found that urban residence, married, absence of diseases, employed and better social capital were significantly associated with one or more domains of QOL. Our study was first of its kind which assessed the QOL among heads of household and laid the foundation for further research in this grey area.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Abbottabad District Demographics. Information Technology Board, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Official web portal of Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. https://kp.gov.pk/page/abbottabad_district_at_a_glance (2019). Accessed 9 june 2019

  2. Adler, N.E., Newman, K.: Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health aff. 21(2), 60–76 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Akinsola, H.A., Popovich, J.M.: The quality of life of families of female-headed households in Botswana: a secondary analysis of case studies. Health Care Women Int. 23(6–7), 761–772 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Al-Surimi, K., Al-harbi, I., El-Metwally, A., Motasim, B.: Quality of life among home healthcare patients in Saudi Arabia: household-based survey. Health Qual Life Outcomes 17(1), 21 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Boldaji, L.T., Foruzan, A., Rafiey, H.: Quality of life of head-of-household women: a comparison between those supported by Welfare Organization and those with service jobs. Soc. Welf. Q. 11(40), 9–28 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Brajša-Žganec, A., Merkaš, M., Šverko, I.: Quality of life and leisure activities: How do leisure activities contribute to subjective well-being? Soc. Indic. Res. 102(1), 81–91 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Buvinić, M., Gupta, G.R.: Female-headed households and female-maintained families: are they worth targeting to reduce poverty in developing countries? Econ. Dev. Cult. Change 45(2), 259–280 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cruz, L.N., Polanczyk, C.A., Camey, S.A., Hoffmann, J.F., Fleck, M.P.: Quality of life in Brazil: normative values for the WHOQOL-bref in a southern general population sample. Qual. Life Res. 20(7), 1123–1129 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  9. De Silva, I.: Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region. Major Trends Affecting Families: a Background Document. Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family. Report for UN, 4 (2003)

  10. Deshmukh, P.R., Dongre, A.R., Rajendran, K., Kumar, S.: Role of social, cultural and economic capitals in perceived quality of life among old age people in kerala, India. Indian J. Palliat. Care 21(1), 39 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  11. El Achhab, Y., Nejjari, C., Chikri, M., Lyoussi, B.: Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments among adults diabetic: a systematic review. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 80(2), 171 –184 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Grootaert, C., Narayan, D., Jones, V.N., Woolcock, M.: Measuring Social Capital: An Integrated Questionnaire. The World Bank, Washington, D.C (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Harcar, T., Spillan, J.E., Kucukemiroglu, O.: A multi-national study of family decision-making. Multinatl. Bus. Rev. 13(2), 3–21 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Kaur, H., Kaur, H., Venkateashan, M.: Factors determining family support and quality of life of elderly population. IJRMS 4(8), 1049–1054 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Koohi, F., Nedjat, S., Yaseri, M., Zahra, C.: Quality of life among general populations of different countries in the past 10 Years, with a focus on human development index: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran. J. Public Health. 46(1), 12 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Lodhi, F.S., Raza, O., Montazeri, A., Nedjat, S., Yaseri, M., Naieni, K.: Psychometric properties of the Urdu version of the World Health Organization's quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). Med. J. Islam Repub. Iran 31, 129 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Lodhi, F.S., Montazeri, A., Nedjat, S., Mahmoodi, M., Farooq, U., Yaseri, M., Kasaeian, A., Naieni, K.: Assessing the quality of life among Pakistani general population and their associated factors by using the World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF): a population based cross-sectional study. Health Qual. Life Outcomes 17(1), 9 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Mols, F., Vingerhoets, A.J., Coebergh, J.W.: Quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors: a systematic review. Eur. J. Cancer 41(17), 2613–2619 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  19. National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS) [Pakistan] and ICF: Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017–2018. NIPS and ICF, Islamabad and Rockville (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Nedjat, S., Naieni, K.H., Mohammad, K., Majdzadeh, R., Montazer, A.: Quality of life among an Iranian general population sample using the World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF). Int. J. Public Health 56(1), 55–61 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Nilsson, J., Rana, A.M., Kabir, Z.N.: (2016) Social capital and quality of life in old age: results from a cross-sectional study in rural Bangladesh. J. Aging Health 18(3), 419–434 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Rimaz, S., Dastoorpoor, M., Vesali, S., Saiepour, N., Nedjat, S., Sadeghi, M., Khoei, E.: Investigation of relationship between social capital and quality of life in female headed families. Med. J. Islam Repub. Iran 29, 270 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Sen, A., Nussbaum, M.: Capability and well-being. In: Nussbaum, M., Sen, A. (eds.) The Quality of Life. Clarendon, Oxford (1993)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Solhi, M., Hamedan, M.S., Salehi, M.: Relationship between Quality of life of women-headed households and some related factors in Iran. Glob J Health Sci. 8(10), 56241–56241 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Tajvar, M., Arab, M., Montazeri, A.: Determinants of health-related quality of life in elderly in Tehran. Iran. BMC Public Health 8(1), 323 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  26. Taylor, M.P., Jenkins, S.P., Sacker, A.: Financial capability and psychological health. J. Econ. psychol. 32(5), 710–723 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  27. United Nations: Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses. United Nations, New York (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Veisani, Y., Delpisheh, A., Sayehmiri, K.: Health related quality of life in the female-headed households. J. Epidemiol. Res. 2(4), 178–183 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  29. WHO QOL Group: Soc Sci Med. 41(10), 1403–1409 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  30. WHO Qol Group: Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychol. Med. 28(3), 551–558 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank all those who have helped us in conducting this study. Our thanks go to all participants, the health workers of Abbottabad district for their help in data collection process from all union councils of the district. We also extend our gratitude to Dr. Umer Farooq, Dr. Faisal Khanzada and Dr. Qasim for their permission and kind supervision of the project.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fahad Saqib Lodhi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical approval was obtained from Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Approval Number: 9123490001–136169), and by health and political administrative bodies of Abbottabad District, Pakistan.

Informed consent

The purpose of the study was described to the respondents. The informed consent was taken from each study participants before the conduct of the interview. The respondents were ensured of the confidentiality of information provided.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lodhi, F.S., Rabbani, U., Khan, A.A. et al. Quality of life and its predictors among Pakistani head of household in district Abbottabad, Pakistan. Qual Quant 54, 1129–1143 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-020-00978-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Head of household
  • Quality of life (QOL)
  • WHOQOL-BREF
  • Abbottabad
  • Pakistan