Quality & Quantity

, Volume 50, Issue 5, pp 2085–2105 | Cite as

Does flexicurity promote the employment of disabled people? A panel analysis for Italian regional data

  • Massimiliano Agovino
  • Agnese Rapposelli


The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of flexicurity upon regional labour market performance in the employment of disabled people. To this purpose, we implement a static model, via 2SLS, and a dynamic model, via GMM-system, on Italian regions for the period 2006–2011. Our results show a failure of flexicurity for people with disabilities in terms of policy, it is important to promote more flexibility in the laws governing the employment of disabled people and in contributory benefits transfer programmes. Moreover, it is necessary to promote policy actions aimed at supporting private firms in their production process.


Disabled people Public policy Non-labour market discrimination Empirical matching Flexibility Social security 


  1. Addabbo, T., Krishnakumar, J., Sarti E.: To what extent does disability discourage from work? An empirical analysis of labour force participation of disabled people in Italy. CAP Papers No. 109, Department of Economics Marco Biagi, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (2013)Google Scholar
  2. Agovino, M., Parodi, G.: Civilian disability pensions as an antipoverty policy instrument? A spatial analysis of Italian provinces, 2003–2005. In: Parodi, G., Sciulli, D. (eds.), Social Exclusion, AIEL Series in Labour Economics. Springer Verlag, Berlin (2012). doi: 10.1007/978-3-7908-2772-9_8
  3. Agovino, M., Rapposelli, A.: Employment of disabled people in the private sector. An analysis at the level of Italian Provinces according to article 13 of Law 68/99. Qual. Quant. 48(3), 1537–1552 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altavilla, C., Caroleo, F.E.: Asymmetric effects of national-based active labour market policies. Reg. Stud. 47(9), 1482–1506 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arellano, M., Bond, S.R.: Some tests of specification for panel data: Monte Carlo evidence and an application to employment equations. Rev. Econ. Stud. 58, 277–297 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arellano, M., Bover, O.: Another look at the instrumental-variable estimation of error-components models. J. Econom. 68, 29–52 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arsenjeva, J.: Annotated review of European Union law and policy with reference to disability. Report Prepared for the Academic Network of European Disability experts (ANED), University of Leeds, Leeds (2009)Google Scholar
  8. Bekker, S., Wilthagen, T.: Europe’s pathways to flexicurity: lessons presented from and to the Netherlands. Intereconomics 43, 68–73 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blundell, R.W., Bond, S.R.: Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. J. Econom. 87, 115–143 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boeri, T.: Learning from transition economies: assessing labor market policies across Central and Eastern Europe. J. Comp. Econ. 25, 366–384 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boeri, T., Burda, M.C.: Active labor market policies, job matching and the Czech miracle. Eur. Econ. Rev. 40, 805–817 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broersma, L., van Ours, J.C.: Job searchers, job matches and the elasticity of matching. Labour Econ. 6(1), 77–93 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burda, M.C.: Modelling exits from unemployment in Eastern Germany: a matching function approach. In: CEPR Discussion Papers 800, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers (1993)Google Scholar
  14. Coles, M.G., Smith, E.: Marketplaces and matching. Int. Econ. Rev. 39, 239–254 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Criscuolo, C., Martin, R., Overman, H., Van Reenen, J.: The causal effects of an industrial policy, In: NBER Working Paper No. 17842 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. de Groot, A.J., Elhorst, P.: Labour market of flexicurity from a regional perspective. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 101(4), 392–408 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eichorst, W., Kendzia, M.J., Knudsen, J.B., Hanse, M.O., Vandeweghe, B., Vanhoren, I., Ruckert, E., Schulte, B. The mobility and integration of people with disabilities into the labour market. IZA Research Report No. 29 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. Fahr, R., Sunde, U.: Did the Hartz reforms speed-up the matching process? A macro-evaluation using empirical matching functions. Ger. Econ. Rev. 10(3), 284–316 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gregg, P., Petrongolo, B.: Stock-flow matching and the performance of the labor market. Eur. Econ. Rev. 49, 1987–2011 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greve, B., (2009) The labour market situation of disabled people in European countries and implementation of employment policies: a summary of evidence from country reports and research studies, Report Prepared for the Academic Network of European Disability experts (ANED), University of Leeds, LeedsGoogle Scholar
  21. Hansen, L.P.: Large sample properties of generalized method of moments estimators. Econometrica 50(4), 1029–1054 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hsiao, C.: Analysis of panel data, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press (Econometric Society Monograph No. 34, Cambridge (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lottman, F.: Spatial dependencies in German matching functions. Reg. Sci. Urban Econ. 42, 27–41 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Madsen P.K.: “Flexicurity” through labour market policies and institutions in Denmark. In: Auer, P., Cazes, S. (eds.) Employment stability in an age of flexibility, pp. 59–105. Geneve, International Labour Office, Geneve (2002a)Google Scholar
  25. Madsen, P.K.: The Danish model of flexicurity: a paradise—with some snakes. In: Sarfati, H., Bonoli, G. (eds.) Employment protection reforms in international perspective, pp. 243–265. Ashgate, Aldershot (2002b)Google Scholar
  26. Ministry of Employment: Quarta relazione al parlamento sullo stato di attuazione della legge 12 marzo 1999, n. 68, Norme per il diritto al lavoro dei disabili, Roma (2006–2007)Google Scholar
  27. Ministry of Employment: Quinta relazione al parlamento sullo stato di attuazione della legge 12 marzo 1999, n. 68, Norme per il diritto al lavoro dei disabili, Roma (2008–2009)Google Scholar
  28. Ministry of Employment: Quinta relazione al parlamento sullo stato di attuazione della legge 12 marzo 1999, n. 68, Norme per il diritto al lavoro dei disabili, Roma (2010–2011)Google Scholar
  29. OECD: Sickness, disability and work: keeping on track in the economic downturn, background paper for the high-level forum. OECD, Stockholm (2009a)Google Scholar
  30. OECD: Sickness, disability and work. Addressing policy challenges in OECD countries, OECD high-level forum. OECD, Stockholm (2009b)Google Scholar
  31. Orlando, N., Patrizio, M.: Il collocamento mirato dei disabili: l’applicazione della legge 68/1999 nella Provincia di Bolzano. In: Parodi, G. (ed.) Aspetti socioeconomici della disabilità, pp. 179–216. Aracne Editrice, Roma (2006)Google Scholar
  32. Petrangolo, B., Pissaridies, C.: Looking into the black box: a survey of the matching function. J. Econ. Lit. 39, 390–431 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rogowski, R.: Governance of the European Social Model: the case of flexicurity. Intereconomics 43, 82–91 (2008)Google Scholar
  34. Shima, I., Zólyomi, E., Zaidi, A.: The labour market situation of people with disabilities in EU25. European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Policy Brief February (I), Vienna (2008)Google Scholar
  35. Staiger, D., Stock, J.H.: Instrumental variables regression with weak instruments. Econometrica 65(3), 557–586 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stevens, M.: New microfoundations for the aggregate matching function. Int. Econ. Rev. 48(3), 847–868 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. WHO: International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps A Manual of Classification Relating to the Consequences of Disease. World Health Organization, Geneva (1980)Google Scholar
  38. WHO: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. World Health Organization, Geneva (2001)Google Scholar
  39. Wilthagen, T., Rogoswski, R.: The legal regulation of transitional labour markets. In: Schmid, G., Gazier, B. (eds.) The dynamics of full employment, pp. 233–273. Edwar Elgar, Cheltenham (2002)Google Scholar
  40. Wilthagen, T., Tros, F.: The concept of ‘flexicurity: a new approach to regulating employment and labour markets. Eur. Rev. Labour Res. 10(2), 166–186 (2004)Google Scholar
  41. Zhou, J.: Denmark’s flexicurity model: the answer for Europe? Intereconomics 43, 78–82 (2008)Google Scholar
  42. Zhou, J.: Danish for all? Balancing flexibility with security: the flexicurity model, IMF Working Paper WP/07/36 (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economic and Legal StudiesUniversity “Parthenope” of NaplesNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Economics“G. D’Annunzio” University of Chieti-PescaraPescaraItaly

Personalised recommendations