Advertisement

Quality & Quantity

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 189–196 | Cite as

The rationality and objectivity of reflection in phenomenological research

  • Bella Ya-Hui Lien
  • David J. Pauleen
  • Yu-Ming Kuo
  • Tz-Li Wang
Article
  • 502 Downloads

Abstract

This article focuses on the reflection of lived experience as a way to understand the meaning and essence of lived experience in phenomenological research. The importance of reflection as a key learning tool in professional research development is emphasized. We argue that good reflection should result in the interviewee, the researcher, and the reader sharing a common experience as to the meaning of a certain lived experience. Therefore, the role of a researcher is likened to a bridge on which the reader travels into the interviewee’s living world. To achieve this, we argue that reflection must be rational and objective. To explain how to achieve the rationality and objectivity of reflection, we have divided the paper into two parts. First, we provide a briefly explain reflection on lived experience. Then we discuss the importance of rationality and objectivity in reflection and how to achieve and present them in research.

Keywords

Reflection Rationality Objectivity Phenomenology Lived experience 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beck C.T.: Nursing students’ initial clinical experience: a phenomenological study. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 30, 489–497 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker C.S.: Living and Relating: An Introduction to Phenomenology. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA (1992)Google Scholar
  3. Blaikie N.: Approaches to Social Enquiry. Polity Press, Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar
  4. Bogdan R.C., Biklen S.K.: Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Allyn & Bacon, Boston (1998)Google Scholar
  5. Clarke M.: Action and reflection: practice and theory in nursing. J. Adv. Nurs. 11, 3–11 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dahlberg K., Drew N.: A lifeworld paradigm for nursing research. J. Holist. Nurs. 15, 303–317 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dahlberg K., Drew N., Nystrom M.: Reflective lifeworld research. Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden (2002)Google Scholar
  8. Debesay J., Naden D., Slettebo A.: How do we close the hermeneutic circle? A Gadamerian approach to justification in interpretation in qualitative studies. Nurs. Inq. 15, 57–66 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Drew N.: Exclusion and confirmation: a phenomenology of patients’ experiences with caregivers. J. Nurs. Scholarsh. 18, 39–43 (1986)Google Scholar
  10. Embree L.: Schutzian Social Science. Springer, New York (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Finlay L.: Negotiating the swamp: the opportunity and challenge of reflexivity in research practice. Qual. Res. 2, 209–231 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greene M.: Landscapes of Meaning. Teachers College Press, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  13. Habermas J.: Communication and the Evolution of Society. Beacon Press, Boston (1979)Google Scholar
  14. Heidegger, M.: Being and Time (J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans.). Harper, New York (1962)Google Scholar
  15. Husserl E.: Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy (F. Kersten, Trans.). Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kvale S.: The qualitative research interview: a phenomenological and hermeneutical mode of understanding. J. Phenomenol. Psychol. 14, 171–196 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koch T.: Interpretive approaches in nursing research: the influence of Husserl and Heidegger. J Adv. Nurs. 21, 827–836 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koch T., Harrington A.: Reconceptualizing rigour: the case for reflexivity. J. Adv. Nurs. 28, 882–890 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liddell H.G., Scott R., Drisler H.: A Greek-English Lexicon. Harper, New York (1897)Google Scholar
  20. Lopez K.A., Willis D.G.: Descriptive versus interpretive phenomenology: their contributions to nursing knowledge. Qual. Health Res. 14, 726–735 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Merleau-Ponty M.: Phenomenology of Perception. Humanities Press, New York (1962)Google Scholar
  22. Moran D.: Introduction to phenomenology. Routledge, Londo (2000)Google Scholar
  23. Oiler C.: The phenomenological approach in nursing research. Nurs. Res. 31, 178–181 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rooney D., McKenna B.: Should the knowledge-based economy be a savant or a sage? Wisdom and socially intelligent innovation. Prometheus. 23, 307–323 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schutz A.: The Phenomenology of the Social World. Northwestern University Press, Evanston (1967)Google Scholar
  26. Sokolowski R.: Introduction to Phenomenology. Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK (2000)Google Scholar
  27. Stubblefield C., Murray R.L.: A phenomenological framework for psychiatric nursing research. Arch. Psychiatr. Nurs. 16, 149–155 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. van Manen M.: Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. State University of New York, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  29. van Manen M.: Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. Althouyse Press, London (1997)Google Scholar
  30. VanDen Berg J.H.: A Different Existence. Duquesne, University Press, Pittsburgh (1972)Google Scholar
  31. Waterman H.: Embracing ambiguities and valuing ourselves: issues of validity in action research. J. Adv. Nurs. 28, 101–105 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yardley L.: Dilemmas in Qualitative Health Research. Psychology & Health 15, 215–228 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zalm J.E.V.D., Bergum V.: Hermeneutic-phenomenology: providing living knowledge for nursing practice. J. Adv. Nurs. 31, 211–218 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bella Ya-Hui Lien
    • 1
  • David J. Pauleen
    • 2
  • Yu-Ming Kuo
    • 1
  • Tz-Li Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Deptartment of Business AdministrationNational Chung Cheng UniversityChiayiTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.School of ManagementMassey UniversityAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations