Tart cherries are particularly high in anthocyanins and are believed to have many health benefits, including reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. However, comparison between dosages and formulations are lacking. Forty-eight participants were randomly allocated to one of six experimental treatment groups where they ingested tart cherry or placebo in either juice (240 ml per bottle) or powdered capsule form (480 mg per capsule) once or twice daily for 48 h and markers of inflammation (uric acid (UA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) and oxidative capacity (plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)) were measured. There was a group x time interaction for UA (p = 0.02), which declined up to 24 h post ingestion for a single capsule dose, up to 8 h for a two capsule dose, and up to 2 h for a single juice dose. There was an increase in UA from 8 h until 48 h post ingestion in a single juice dose. Overall, there was an average 8% decrease in UA. There was no significant change over time in hsCRP (p = 0.64) or ORAC (p = 0.42) or between groups in hsCRP (p = 0.47) or ORAC (p = 0.21). Our data indicates tart cherry ingestion can transiently decrease UA and not maintained with continued supplementation. Additionally, there were differences in formulations and doses indicating a single powdered capsule is most effective for lowering UA suggesting capsules may be used by those who do not enjoy the taste of tart cherry juice. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04497077, 7/29/2020, retrospectively registered.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Data is available upon request.
Li D, Wang P, Luo Y, Zhao M, Chen F (2017) Health benefits of anthocyanins and molecular mechanisms: update from recent decade. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57:1729–1741. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1030064
Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D (2007) Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 51:675–683. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700002
Halvorsen BL, Carlsen MH, Phillips KM, Bøhn SK, Holte K, Jacobs DR Jr, Blomhoff R (2006) Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 84:95–135. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/84.1.95
Wang H, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, Booren AM, Gray JI (1999) Antioxidant polyphenols from tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J Agric Food Chem 47:840–844. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980936f
Bell PG, Stevenson E, Davison GW, Howatson G (2016) The effects of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise. Nutrients 8:441. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070441
Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson E, Howatson G (2014) Montmorency cherries reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to repeated days high-intensity stochastic cycling. Nutrients 6:829–843. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6020829
Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson EJ, Howatson G (2015) Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 40:414–423. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2014-0244
Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA et al (2010) Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20:843–852. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01005.x
Schumacher HR, Pullman-Mooar S, Gupta SR, Dinnella JE, Kim R, McHugh MP (2013) Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Osteoarthr Cartil 21:1035–1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2013.05.009
Zhang Y, Neogi T, Chen C, Chaisson C, Hunter DJ, Choi HK (2012) Cherry consumption and decreased risk of recurrent gout attacks. Arthritis Rheum 64:4004–4011. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.34677
Bell P, Gaze D, Davison G et al (2014) Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate lowers uric acid, independent of plasma cyanidin-3-O-glucosiderutinoside. J Funct Foods 11:82–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2014.09.004
Charron CS, Kurilich AC, Clevidence BA, Simon PW, Harrison DJ, Britz SJ, Baer DJ, Novotny JA (2009) Bioavailability of anthocyanins from purple carrot juice: effects of acylation and plant matrix. J Agric Food Chem 57:1226–1230. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf802988s
Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A, Rémésy C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81:230S–242S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/81.1.230S
Keane KM, Bell PG, Lodge JK, Constantinou CL, Jenkinson SE, Bass R, Howatson G (2016) Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Eur J Nutr 55:1695–1705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0988-9
Desai T, Roberts M, Bottoms L (2019) Effects of Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on cardio-metabolic markers in metabolic syndrome participants: a pilot study. J Funct Foods 57:286–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.04.005
Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, O’Connor A, Goodenough C, Simbo S, Mertens-Talcott SU, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, Riechman S, Crouse S, Kreider RB (2016) Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 13:22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-016-0133-z
Martin KR, Coles KM (2019) Consumption of 100% tart cherry juice reduces serum Urate in overweight and obese adults. Curr Dev Nutr 3:nzz011. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz011
Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK (2011) Prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: the National Health and nutrition examination survey 2007-2008. Arthritis Rheum 63:3136–3141. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.30520
Choi HK, Ford ES, Li C, Curhan G (2007) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with gout: the third National Health and nutrition examination survey. Arthritis Care Res 57:109–115. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.22466
Fernández-García JC, Cardona F, Tinahones FJ (2013) Inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome: dietary modulation. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 11:906–919. https://doi.org/10.2174/15701611113116660175
Guo Z, Zhang J, Wang Z, Ang KY, Huang S, Hou Q, Su X, Qiao J, Zheng Y, Wang L, Koh E, Danliang H, Xu J, Lee YK, Zhang H (2016) Intestinal microbiota distinguish gout patients from healthy humans. Sci Rep 6:20602. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20602
Chen P-E, Liu C-Y, Chien W-H, Chien CW, Tung TH (2019) Effectiveness of cherries in reducing uric acid and gout: a systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019:9896757–9896757. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9896757
Sproston NR, Ashworth JJ (2018) Role of C-reactive protein at sites of inflammation and infection. Front Immunol 9:754. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00754
Abbott W, Brashill C, Brett A, Clifford T (2020) Tart cherry juice: no effect on muscle function loss or muscle soreness in professional soccer players after a match. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 15:249–254. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0221
Beals K, Allison KF, Damell M et al (2017) The effects of a tart cherry beverage on reducing exercise-induced muscle soreness. Isokinet Exerc Sci 25:53–63. https://doi.org/10.3233/IES-160645
Bowtell JL, Sumners DP, Dyer A et al (2011) Montmorency cherry juice reduces muscle damage caused by intensive strength exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1544–1551. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31820e5adc
McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M (2016) Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained water polo players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 13:41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-016-0151-x
Quinlan R, Hill JA (2020) The efficacy of tart cherry juice in aiding recovery after intermittent exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 15:368–374. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0101
Morehen JC, Clarke J, Batsford J, Barrow S, Brown AD, Stewart CE, Morton JP, Close GL (2020) Montmorency tart cherry juice does not reduce markers of muscle soreness, function and inflammation following professional male rugby league match-play. Eur J Sport Sci:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1797181
Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, Goodenough C, O’Connor A, Simbo S, Barringer N, Mertens-Talcott SU, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, Riechman S, Crouse S, Kreider RB (2015) Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12:41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0102-y
Lynn A, Mathew S, Moore CT, Russell J, Robinson E, Soumpasi V, Barker ME (2014) Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 69:122–127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-014-0409-x
Traustadóttir T, Davies SS, Stock AA et al (2009) Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women. J Nutr 139:1896–1900. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.111716
Lotito SB, Frei B (2006) Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans: cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon? Free Radic Biol Med 41:1727–1746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.04.033
We would like to thank the volunteers for their enthusiastic participation. We would also like to thank Michael Joyce and Michael Boylan for their assistance with data collection.
This study was funded by the Marywood University Murray Award for Research and Development.
Ethical approval was provided by the Marywood University Institutional Review Board (protocol 801,765).
Consent to Participate
Participants provided written informed consent to participate.
Consent for Publication
All authors approve this manuscript for publication.
Conflicts of Interest/Competing Interests
The authors declare no conflicts of interest or competing interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hillman, A.R., Uhranowsky, K. Acute Ingestion of Montmorency Tart Cherry Reduces Serum Uric Acid but Has no Impact on High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein or Oxidative Capacity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-021-00879-7
- Montmorency tart cherry