Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion, Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Polyphenols from Red Chiltepin (Capsicum annuum L. Var. glabriusculum) Grown in Northwest Mexico
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Chiltepin, a wild chili mostly used in different traditional foods and traditional medicine in Northwest Mexico, represents a source of polyphenols. However, studies about the bioaccessibility of polyphenols as a parameter to measure the nutritional quality and bioefficacy of them in the fruit after consumption are scarce. Chiltepin showed phenolic acids and flavonoids contents between 387 and 65 μg/g, respectively. Nevertheless, these values decreased after the digestion process. Before digestion, gallic acid, 4-hydroxibenzoinc acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin and luteolin were the main polyphenols found in chiltepin by HPLC-DAD and confirmed by FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were non-detected in the gastric phase, while only p-coumaric acid (5.35 ± 3.89 μg/g), quercetin (5.91 ± 0.92 μg/g) and luteolin (2.86 ± 0.62 μg/g) were found in the intestinal phase. The bioaccessibility of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and total polyphenols after the intestinal phase was around 24, 17 and 23%, respectively. Overall, results indicated that release of polyphenols from chiltepin fruit might be affected by the food matrix and gastrointestinal conditions due to the low bioaccessibility values observed.
KeywordsChilli In vitro digestion Phenolics Flavonoids Bioavailability
The authors would like to thank CONACYT (291126-UNISON MOD.ORD./68/2016) for the support given during this research. We also thank to chiltepin farmers: Juan Bautista Teran Fraijo and María del Socorro Fraijo Encinas for the facilities provided to get the wild seeds and fruits of chiltepin.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All the authors declare they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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