Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 72, Issue 1, pp 13–19 | Cite as

Identification and Characterization of Diploid and Tetraploid in Platycodon grandiflorum

  • Jeoung-Hwa Shin
  • Yun Gyong Ahn
  • Ju-Hee Jung
  • Sun-Hee Woo
  • Hag-Hyun Kim
  • Shela Gorinstein
  • Hee-Ock Boo
Original Paper


Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), a species of herbaceous flowering perennial plant of the family Campanulaceae, has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, diabetes, hepatic fibrosis, bone disorders and many others similar diseases and as a food supplement. For the primary profiling of PG gas chromatography coupled with high resolution – time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/HR-TOF MS) was used as an analytical tool. A comparison of optimal extraction of metabolites was carried out with a number of solvents [hexane, methylene chloride, methanol, ethanol, methanol: ethanol (70:30, v:v)]. In extracts with methanol: ethanol (70:30 v:v) were detected higher amounts of metabolites than with other solvents. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots showed significant differences between the diploid and tetraploid metabolite profiles. Extracts of tetraploid showed higher amounts of amino acids, while extracts of diploid contained more organic acids and sugars.

Graphical Abstract


Gas chromatography/high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/HR-TOF MS) Diploid Tetraploid Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) 



This research was supported by High Value-added Food Technology Development Program of IPET, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea. And this research was supported by the Korea Basic Science Institute (C36917).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that they have no any conflict of interests.

Human and Animal Studies

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11130_2016_589_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (866 kb)
ESM 1 (PPTX 865 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeoung-Hwa Shin
    • 1
  • Yun Gyong Ahn
    • 2
  • Ju-Hee Jung
    • 1
  • Sun-Hee Woo
    • 3
  • Hag-Hyun Kim
    • 4
  • Shela Gorinstein
    • 5
  • Hee-Ock Boo
    • 6
  1. 1.Seoul CenterKorea Basic Science InstituteSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Western Seoul CenterKorea Basic Science InstituteSeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Crop ScienceChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuSouth Korea
  4. 4.Faculty of Food Nutrition and CookeryWoosong Information CollegeDaejeonSouth Korea
  5. 5.Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical SchoolJerusalemIsrael
  6. 6.PHYTO M&F Co. Ltd., BI Center, GISTGwangjuSouth Korea

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