Obtaining from Grape Pomace an Enzymatic Extract with Anti-inflammatory Properties
Grape pomace, a winemaking industry by-product, is a rich source of bioactive dietary compounds. Using proteases we have developed an enzymatic process for obtaining a water-soluble extract (GP-EE) that contains biomolecules such as peptides, carbohydrates, lipids and polyphenols in soluble form. Of especial interest is its high polyphenol content (12 %), of which 77 % are flavonoids and 33 % are phenolic acids. The present study evaluates in vitro the potential anti-inflammatory effect of GP-EE by monitoring the expression of inflammatory molecules on N13 microglia cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GP-EE decreases the mRNA levels of the inflammatory molecules studied. The molecules under study were as follows: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1(Iba-1) and the Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), as well as the iNOS protein level in LPS-stimulated microglia. Our findings suggest that, as a result of its ability to regulate excessive microglial activation, GP-EE possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, acting as a chemopreventive agent, it may be of therapeutic interest in neurodegenerative diseases involving neuroinflammation. We can, therefore, propose GP-EE as a useful natural extract and one that would be beneficial to apply in the field of functional foods.
KeywordsGrape pomace Enzymatic extract Polyphenols Anti-inflammatory Neurodegeneration
Grape pomace enzymatic extract
Inducible nitric oxide synthase
Tumor necrosis factor- alpha
Toll like receptor-4
Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography
This research was supported by a grant of the Ministerio de Innovación y Ciencia, Spain (TRACE 2009-0263-01).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicting interests or financial disclosures.
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