Lipid-Soluble Ginseng Extract Induces Apoptosis and G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in NCI-H460 Human Lung Cancer Cells
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This study was performed to elucidate the anticancer mechanism of a lipid-soluble ginseng extract (LSGE) by analyzing induction of apoptosis and arrest of cell cycle progression using the NCI-H460 human lung cancer cell line. Proliferation of NCI-H460 cells was potently inhibited by LSGE in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in NCI-H460 cells was induced by LSGE. The percentage of G0/G1 phase cells significantly increased, while that of S phase cells decreased after treatment with LSGE. The expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinase2 (CDK2), CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D3 and cyclin E related to G0/G1 cells progression were also altered by LSGE. In addition, LSGE-induced cell death occurred through apoptosis, which was accompanied by increasing the activity of caspases including caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3. Consistent with enhancement of caspase activity, LSGE increased protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). These apoptotic effects of LSGE were inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. These findings indicate that LSGE inhibits NCI-H460 human lung cancer cell growth by cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis.
KeywordsApoptosis induction Caspase activation Human lung cancer cell G0/G1 phase arrest Lipid-soluble ginseng extract
lipid-soluble ginseng extract
Sodium 3′-[1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis (4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulfonic acid hydrate
This study was supported in part by a grant (No. A101836) of the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry for Health, Welfare & Family Affairs, Republic of Korea and a grant from the KRIBB Research Initiative Program.
Conflicts of Interest
There are no actual conflicts of interest.
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