Advertisement

Antioxidative and Antigenotoxic Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Prepared by Different Processing Methods

  • Jae-Hee Park
  • Yoo Kyoung Park
  • Eunju Park
Original Paper

Abstract

This study describes the antioxidant activities and antigenotoxic effects of garlic extracts prepared by different processing methods. Aged-garlic extract (AGE) showed a significantly higher total phenolic content (562.6 ± 1.92 mg/100 g garlic acid equivalents) than those of raw garlic extract (RGE) or heated garlic extract (HGE). The SC50 for DPPH RSA in HGE was significantly the highest at 2.1 mg/ml. The SC50 for SOD-like activity in garlic extracts was, in decreasing order, RGE (7.3 mg/ml) > AGE (8.5 mg/ml) > HGE (9.2 mg /ml). The ED50 of AGE was the highest (19.3 μg/ml) regarding H2O2 induced DNA damage and its inhibition rate was 70.8%. The ED50 of RGE for 4-hydroxynonenal (a lipid peroxidation product) induced DNA damage was 38.6 μg/ml, followed by AGE > HGE. Although the heat treatment of garlic tended to decrease the TPC and SOD-like activity and increased DPPH RSA, garlic, in general, has significant antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative DNA damage regardless of processing method.

Keywords

Aged-garlic Total polyphenol DPPH SOD-like activity Antigenotoxic effect 

Abbreviations

RGE

Raw garlic extract

HGE

Heated garlic extract

AGE

Aged garlic extract

ED50

The estimated dose for 50% reduction in oxidative DNA damage

SC50

The concentration required for scavenging 50% of activity

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

TPC

Total phenolic contents

RSA

Radical scavenging activity

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

FCR

Folin–Ciocalteu reagent

HNE

4-hydroxynonenal

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by Kyungnam University Research Fund, 2009.

References

  1. 1.
    Fleiscauer AT, Arab L (2001) Garlic and cancer: a critical review of the epidemiological literature. J Nutr 131:1032S–1040SGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nencini C, Cavallo F, Capasso A, Franchi GG, Giorgio G, Micheli L (2007) Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Allium species growing wild in Italy. Phytother Res 21:874–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leelarungrayub N, Rattanapanone V, Chanarat N, Gebicki JM (2006) Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations. Nutrition 22:266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brace LD (2002) Cardiovascular benefits of garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Cardiovasc Nurs 16:33–49Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wickens AP (2001) Ageing and the free radical theory. Respir Physiol 128:379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Osawa T, Yoshida A, Kawakishi S, Yamashita K, Ochi H (1995) Protective role of dietary antioxidants in oxidative stress. In: Cutler RG, Packer L, Bertram J, Mori A (eds) Oxidative stress and aging. Birkhauser, Basel, pp 367–377Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Ohshita M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K (2002) The comet assay with eight mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutation Res/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 519:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ren W, Qiao Z, Wang H, Zhu L, Zhang L (2003) Flavonoids: promising anticancer agents. Med Res Rev 23:519–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tapiero H, Tew KD, Ba GN, Mathe G (2002) Polyphenol: do they play a role in the prevention of human pathologies? Biomed Pharmacother 56:200–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shahidi F, Naczk M (1995) Food phenolics, sources, chemistry, effects, application. Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., Lancaster, pp 75–107Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cardelle-Cobas A, Moreno FJ, Corzo N, Olano A, Villamiel M (2005) Assessment of initial stages of maillard reaction in dehydrated onion and garlic samples. J Agric Food Chem 53:9078–9082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pedraza-Chaverri J, Medina-Campos ON, Avila-Lombardo R, Zuniga-Bustos AB, Orozco-Ibarra M (2006) Reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity of different cooked garlic preparations. Life Sci 78:761–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ide N, Lau BH (1997) Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury. J Pharm Pharmacol 49:908–911Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu X, Cao BN, Hu G, He J, Yang DQ, Wan YS (2002) Attenuation of cell migration and induction of cell death by aged garlic extract in rat sarcoma cells. Int J Mol Med 9:641–643Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL (2005) The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53:1841–1856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choi DJ, Lee SJ, Kang MJ, Cho HS, Sung NJ, Shin JH (2008) Physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aged Garlic Extract (2006) Research excerpts from peer reviewed scientific journals & scientific meetings. Wakunaga of America Co. Ltd., Mission Viejo, p 1Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kwon OC, Woo KS, Kim TM, Kim DJ, Hong JT, Jeong HS (2006) Physicochemical characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the high temperature and pressure treatment. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38:331–336Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shahidi F, Naczk M (1995) Food phenolics. Technomic Publishing Co. Ltd., Inc., Lancaster, pp 32–65Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mosquera OM, Correa YM, Buitrago DC, Nio J (2007) Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102:631–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diouf PN, Stevanovic T, Cloutier A (2009) Study on chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of hot water extract Picea mariana bark and its proanthocyanidin-rich fractions. Food Chem 113:897–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hu M, Skibsted LH (2002) Antioxidative capacity of rhizome extract and rhizome knot extract of edible lotus. Food Chem 76:327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sawa T, Nakao M, Akaike T, Ono K, Maeda H (1999) Alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity of various flavonoids and other phenolic compounds: implications for the anti-tumor-promoter effect of vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 47:397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD (1998) Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J Agric Food Chem 46:4113–4117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim SY, Jeong SM, Park WP, Nam KC, Ahn DU, Lee SC (2006) Effect of heating conditions of grape seeds on the antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts. Food Chem 97:472–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xu GH, Ye XQ, Chen JC, Liu DH (2007) Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract. J Agric Food Chem 55:330–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gorinstein S, Jastrzebski Z, Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Namiesnik J, Najman K, Park YS, Heo BK, Cho JY, Bae JH (2009) Comparative control of the bioactivity of some frequently consumed vegetables subjected to different processing conditions. Food Contr 20:407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Deutshch JC (1998) Ascorbic acid oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. Anal Biochem 255:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abrahamse SL, Pool-Zobel BL, Rechkemmer G (1999) Potential of short chain fatty acids to modulate the induction of DNA damage and changes in the intracellular calcium concentration in isolated rat colon cells. Carcinogenesis 20:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Esterbauer H, Schaur RJ, Zollner H (1991) Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radic Biol Med 11:81–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL (1997) Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships. Free Radic Biol Med 22:749–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rice-Evans C, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationship of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20:933–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fabiani R, Rosignoli P, Bartolomeo AD, Fuccelli R, Servili M, Montedoro GF, Morrozzi G (2008) Oxidative DNA damage is prevented by extracts of olive oil, hydroxytyrosol, and other olive phenolic compounds in human blood mononuclear cells and HL60 cells. J Nutr 138:1411–1416Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and NutritionKyungnam UniversityMasanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Medical NutritionKyunghee UniversityMasanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations