Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 121–129 | Cite as

Effect of DHA Containing Oils and Powders on Baking Performance and Quality of White Pan Bread

Original Article


Different sources of DHA and/or n-3 (omega-3) rich oils, oil emulsions and microencapsulated (ME) powders were tested at two different concentrations with the aim of producing fortified pan bread. Three oils (S-algae, fish and flax), two emulsified algae oils (Emulsion-P and Emulsion-L) and two ME oils (ME-S algae and ME-C algae) were compared. The DHA and n-3 oils replaced part of the shortening in order to obtain 32 g slices enriched with 25 or 50 mg DHA, 35 or 70 mg total n-3 from fish oil and 90 or 180 mg linolenic from flax oil. Addition of oils did not significantly affect water absorption but reduced mix time whereas addition of the ME oils decreased both water absorption and mix time. Breads enriched with flax or ME-C oils had lower volume and higher density than the control, ME-S algae, Emulsion-P and Emulsion-L breads. All breads lost texture throughout 14 d storage, the major changes occurred after 3 d. The ME-S algae oil bread had the best softness after 14 d storage whereas breads produced from ME-S algae or ME-C algae oils had the poorest texture. Sensory evaluations indicated that the color of the ME-S algae oil fortified bread was significantly less preferred than the other loaves. After 6 d the control bread had higher acceptability compared with the rest of the breads enriched with high levels of DHA or omega-3 oils. The high-enriched fish oil bread was well accepted during the first days of storage but had the least preferred acceptability after 13 d. The best fortified breads were those supplemented with S-algae oil, Emulsion-P and Emulsion-L oils.

Key words:

Algae oil DHA EPA Fish oil Flax oil Pan bread 



docosahexaenoic acid


eicosapentaenoic acid


fatty acid methyl esters


gas liquid chromatography-flame ionization detector




sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate



This research was partially supported by grant CAT-005 from the ITESM-Campus Monterrey, Mexico.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Departamento de Biotecnología e Ingeniería de AlimentosITESM-Campus MonterreyMonterreyMéxico
  2. 2.Departamento de Biotecnología e Ingeniería de AlimentosITESM-Campus MonterreyMonterreyMéxico
  3. 3.Departamento de Biotecnología e Ingeniería de AlimentosITESM-CampusMonterreyMéxico
  4. 4.EFFICAS Inc.BoulderUSA
  5. 5.Product DevelopmentMartek Biosciences Boulder CorporationBoulderUSA

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