Security analysis with improved design of post-confirmation mechanism for quantum sealed-bid auction with single photons

  • Ke-Jia Zhang
  • Leong-Chuan Kwek
  • Chun-Guang Ma
  • Long Zhang
  • Hong-Wei Sun


Quantum sealed-bid auction (QSA) has been widely studied in quantum cryptography. For a successful auction, post-confirmation is regarded as an important mechanism to make every bidder verify the identity of the winner after the auctioneer has announced the result. However, since the auctioneer may be dishonest and collude with malicious bidders in practice, some potential loopholes could exist. In this paper, we point out two types of collusion attacks for a particular post-confirmation technique with EPR pairs. And it is not difficult to see that there exists no unconditionally secure post-confirmation mechanism in the existing QSA model, if the dishonest participants have the ability to control multiparticle entanglement. In the view of this, we note that some secure implementation could exist if the participants are supposed to be semi-quantum, i.e., they can only control single photons. Finally, two potential methods to design post-confirmation mechanism are presented in this restricted scenario.


Quantum sealed-bid auction Post-confirmation Single photons 



This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11647128, 61472097; the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province under Grant Nos. A2016007; the China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201607320084); Youth Foundation of Heilongjiang University under Grant No. QL201501 and Hei Long Jiang Postdoctoral Foundation from December, 2017.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ke-Jia Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Leong-Chuan Kwek
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Chun-Guang Ma
    • 1
  • Long Zhang
    • 2
  • Hong-Wei Sun
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and TechnologyHarbin Engineering UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.School of Mathematical ScienceHeilongjiang UniversityHarbinChina
  3. 3.Centre for Quantum TechnologiesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.MajuLabCNRS-UNS-NUS-NTU International Joint Research Unit, UMI 3654SingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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