# Fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication using EPR states against collective noise

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## Abstract

This paper proposes two new fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocols based only on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) entangled states. The proposed protocols are designed to be robust against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Compared to the existing fault-tolerant controlled quantum communication protocols, the proposed protocols not only can do without a quantum channel between the receiver and the controller as the state-of-the-art protocols do, but also have the advantage that the number of quantum particles required in the CDSQC protocols is reduced owing to the use of the simplest entangled states.

## Keywords

Quantum cryptography Controlled quantum communication Fault-tolerant protocol## Notes

### Acknowledgments

This research is partially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C., under the Contract No. MOST 104-2221-E-006-102. The authors would like to thanks for the anonymous reviewers’s valuable comments to improve the quality of this paper. Especially, the controller’s attack described in Sect. 4 is due to an reviewer.

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