This study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the best model for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms in children aged 3 to 15 years, as presented in the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Teachers’ ratings of the ODD symptoms of 213 children from general community schools in Australia were obtained. The findings provided most support for a bifactor model based on Stringaris and Goodman’s  three-factor model (primary factors for irritable, hurtful, and headstrong). The general factor, but not the group factors in the model, showed high omega hierarchical and explained common variance. Thus, only the general factor in this model can be meaningfully interpreted. Also, the general factor was supported with regard to external validity. Specifically, this factor, but not the group factors, correlated strongly with ADHD inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom groups, and other measures of behavioural and emotional problems. The taxonomic, diagnostic, practical, and research implications of the findings are discussed.
Oppositional defiant disorder Confirmatory factor analysis Community sample Teacher ratings, bifactor model
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Rapson Gomez planning, design and then writing up. Vasileios Stavropoulos literature review, and writing up. George Van Doorn literature review, and writing up.
Role of Funding Source
The study was not funded by any source.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Authors have no current financial or other interest with any organization currently or in future in terms of the research.
All procedures followed for the present study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in the study. No identifying information is included in this article. No animal or human studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
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